General

General Research Papers/Topics

Cost benefit analysis of different energy sources used in public secondary schools in Mtito Andei Division, Makueni County

Abstract: Energy affects all aspects of development: social, economic and environmental, including livelihoods, access to water, agricultural productivity, health, population levels and education. Public schools spend a lot of money every year on energy bills. Currently, they are experiencing an exponential increase in student enrolment which puts more pressure on energy needs. This study focuses on cost benefit analysis of different energy sources used in public secondary schools in Mtito A...

Bevolkingsdinamika van die vlakhaas, lepus capensis L. 1758, in die Willem Pretorius-wildtuin

Abstract: 'n Studie is op die vlakhaas in die Willern Pretorius-wildtuin vanaf Januarie 1975 tot September 1977 uitgevoer. Tydens die studie is aspekte soos reproduksie, enkele morfologiese en fisiologiese aspekte, habitatsvoorkeure, aktiwiteite, loopgebiede en territoria onder soek. Uit 'n monster van vlakhase wat maandeliks versamel is, is gevind dat die vlakhaas die hele jaar teel maar 'n duidelike hoof-teelseisoen kom tussen Julie en Desember voor waartydens 76,72 persent van die jaarlik...

MODELING THE DISTRIBUTION OF Aloe ankoberensis AND Aloe debrana UNDER DIFFERENT CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIOS IN NORTH SHEWA ZONE, AMHARA NATIONAL REGIONAL STATE, ETHIOPIA

Abstract: Aloe ankoberensis M.G. Gilbert & Sebsebe and A. debrana Christian are endemic species of Ethiopia that are currently listed as endangered and least concern, respectively under international union for conservation of nature (IUCN) category. Recent studies concluded that climate change is predicted to be one of the primary drivers which determine the distribution of plant species. Therefore, this study aimed to model the distribution of A. ankoberensis and A. debrana under different ...

Impact of Climate Variability on Barley (Hordeumvulgarel) Production, Farmers' Perception and Adaptation Strategies in Misha District Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia

Abstract: Climate variability poses threats to agriculture and natural resources across the world. Studies on the effect of climate variability on specific crops and farmers perception on the variability are necessary to make targeted and effective adaptation measures. Based on this reality, this study assessed impact of climate variability on barley production and farmers’ perception and adaption responses in Misha District. A households’ survey was carried for a total of 129 household ...

CHARACTERIZING PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF DEMBI RESERVOIR WATER IN RELATION TO FISH PRODUCTION, SOUTHWEST ETHIOPIA

Abstract: As water regulates fish’s life functions such as feeding, swimming, breeding, digestion, and excretion; the change in water quality and availability due to existing natural or anthropogenic activities can adversely affect its production. Physico-chemical water quality characteristics provide important information about the suitability of water for fish production. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the physico-chemical characteristics of Dembi reservoir water in r...

FACTORS AFFECTING ADOPTION OF IMPROVED BREAD WHEAT VARIETIES BY SMALLHOLDER FARMERS IN AWBARE DISTRICT, SOMALI REGIONAL STATE, ETHIOPIA

Abstract: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L) is one of the most important cereal crops grown in Awbare district mainly for improving households’ income and food security.The aim of this study was therefore to assess the adoption status and identify determinants of adoption of improved bread wheat varieties in Awbare district, Somali Regional State. This study considered 160 randomly selected sample households for face to face interview. Key informants interviews and focus group discussions were u...

Climate finance readiness: a review of institutional frameworks and policies in Kenya

Abstract: A significant increase in low carbon investments is required to limit global warming to less than 2°C. For example, about USD 900 billion should be invested annually in the energy sector up to 2030 to meet this target. Climate finance provides opportunities for investments in climate-smart projects. Such investments could enhance Africa’s adaptive capacity, food security and economic growth. Nonetheless, Africa lags behind in the access and utilisation of these funds. Climate fi...

A Bayesian analysis of longitudinal farm surveys in Central Malawi reveals yield determinants and site-specific management strategies.

Abstract: Understanding the challenges to increasing maize productivity in sub-Saharan Africa, especially agronomic factors that reduce on-farm crop yield, has important implications for policies to reduce national and global food insecurity. Previous research on the maize yield gap has tended to emphasize the size of the gap (theoretical vs. achievable yields), rather than what determines maize yield in specific contexts. As a result, there is insufficient evidence on the key agronomic and ...

Push-pull farming system in Kenya: Implications for economic and social welfare

Abstract: This study examines the farm-level economic benefits and aggregate welfare impacts of adopting push–pull technology (PPT)—an innovative, integrated pest and soil-fertility management strategy—with a set of household- and plot-level data collected in western Kenya. The evaluation is based on a combination of econometric and economic surplus analysis. Treatment effect estimates are used to assess the technology-induced shift in the maize supply curve, which is then used as an i...

Population genetics of Anopheles funestus, the African malaria vector, Kenya

Abstract: Background: Anopheles funestus is among the major malaria vectors in Kenya and sub-Saharan Africa and has been recently implicated in persistent malaria ransmission. However, its ecology and genetic diversity remain poorly understood in Kenya.Methods: Using 16 microsatellite loci, we examined the genetic structure of An. funestus sampled from 11 locations (n = 426 individuals) across a wide geographical range in Kenya spanning coastal, western and Rift Valley areas. Results: Kenyan...

Abundance of immature Anopheles and culicines (Diptera: Culicidae) in different water body types in the urban environment of Malindi, Kenya

Abstract: In this study we 1) describe the abundance of Anopheles and culicine immatures in different water body types in urban Malindi, Kenya, 2) compare Anopheles immature density in relation to culicine immature density, and 3) identify characteristics that influence the likelihood of water bodies being co-colonized by Anopheles and culicines. Entomological and environmental cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2001 and 2002 were used in the analysis. A total of 889 Anopheles and 7,217 cu...

The Attentive Spider: Search-Image Use by a Mosquito-Eating Predator

Abstract: Evarcha culicivora, a jumping spider from East Africa, feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by choosing blood-carrying female mosquitoes as prey.It also has an unusually complex mate-choice system. Here, we show that both sexes of E. culicivora can use mate-finding search images and also use prey-finding search images. In experiments, individuals were primed by seeing blood-carrying mosquitoes, primed by seeing potential mates or not primed (control: saw neither). They were then in...

Wide-area invasive species propagation mapping is possible using phenometric trends.

Abstract: Invasive plant species in eastern Africa severely impede rangeland and cropland productivity with dire consequences for livelihoods of agro-pastoralist communities. We produced the first occurrence and spread map of invasive plant species (Prosopis: Prosopis juliflora and Parthenium: Parthenium hysterophorus) for western Somaliland (a region of eastern Africa) using vegetation productivity and phenology trends from 250 m MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) EVI (En...

Potential Application of Variable Surface Glycoproteins in Diagnosis of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

Abstract: Sleeping sickness, also known as human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), is a neglected tropical disease caused by two subspecies of Trypanosoma brucei namely T. b. gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense. Trypanosoma b. gambiense causes chronic form of HAT (Gambian HAT) in West and Central Africa while T. b. rhodesiense is responsible for the acute form (Rhodesian HAT) in East and Southern Africa. In both cases, the disease evolves through clinically distinct stages namely early/stage 1 and ...

Properties and performance testing of biodiesel from a mixture of jatropha curcas and croton megalocarpus blends

Abstract: The main objective of this project was to study biodiesel production from two local nonedible plant feedstocks namely Jatropha curcas and Croton megalocarpus. The oil from the above plant seeds were mechanically extracted using a screw pressing machine and the oil yield determined. Preliminary test were done on the neat oil to ascertain their quality, these included; viscosity, density, acid value, iodine and calorific value. The oils were then converted into biodiesel through tran...


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