Research Papers/Topics in Pediatrics

Safety of Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies in Nigeria: A Cohort Event Monitoring Study

Abstract Background A pilot programme of Cohort Event Monitoring (CEM) was conducted across the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria on patients treated for uncomplicated malaria with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). The emergence and spread of malaria parasites resistant to commonly available antimalarial drugs necessitated a shift in policy for malaria treatment by the Federal Government from the use of chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) as first-line treatm...

Blood Pressure To Height Ratio As A Screening Tool For Prehypertension And Hypertension In Adolescents

Background: Current methods of detection of childhood hypertension are cumbersome and contribute to under-diagnosis hence, the need to generate simpler diagnostic tools. The blood pressure to height ratio has recently been proposed as a novel screening tool for prehypertension and hypertension in some populations. We evaluated its applicability in our environment. Materials and Methods: The weights, heights, and blood pressure measurements of 2364 apparently healthy adolescents were deter...

Cardiac Surgery-Associated Acute Kidney Injury In A Developing Country: Prevalence, Risk Factors And Outcome

ABSTRACTLittle is known about cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CS-AKI) in children in developing regions of the world. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of CS- AKI, associated factors and its impact on mortality and utilization of hospital services. The hospital records of children aged 0–17 years who underwent CS at an Indian hospital were reviewed. CS-AKI was defined as a rise in serum creatinine of ≥0.3 mg/dL in any 48 h and or by urine output

Frequency Of Relapse Among Nigerian Children With Steroid Sensitive Nephrotic Syndrome

Abstract Background: The clinical course of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) among Nigerian children has rarely been reported; this makes prognostication difficult. Objectives: The objective was to determine the frequency of relapses including frequent relapses (FR) and steroid-dependence (SD) in a cohort of Nigerian children with SSNS. A secondary objective was to identify clinical and demographic factors associated with relapse in these children. Methods: Medical records of...

Intestinal Malrotation In The Older Child: A Call For Vigilance

ABSTRACT Context: Most cases of gut malrotation are diagnosed in the 1st year of life, but in minority of cases, the patient becomes symptomatic only in adolescence or adulthood. Aims: The aim of this study was to remind physicians to include intestinal malrotation in the differential diagnosis of children who present with recurrent abdominal pain, especially when it is associated with vomiting and other gastrointestinal symptoms. Settings and Design: This was an audit of the older chil...

The Influence Of Dietary Diversity On The Nutritional Status Of Children Between 6 And 23 Months Of Age In Tanzania

Abstract Background: Undernutrition poses a serious health challenge in developing countries and Tanzania has the highest undernutrition burden of Eastern and Southern Africa. Poor infant and young child feeding practices have been identified as the main causes of undernutrition. As dietary diversity is a major requirement if children are to get all essential nutrients, it can thus be used as one of the core indicators when assessing feeding practices and nutrition of children. Therefore...

Clinical Predictors Of Malaria, Acute Bacterial Meningitis And Treatment Outcomes Among Febrile Children Admitted With Altered Mental Status In Northwestern Tanzania

ABSTRACT Background: Malaria and acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) are the leading infectious causes of febrile encephalopathy in malaria endemic settings. The clinical distinction of the two conditions is complicated by overlap in clinical features. Objective: To determine the clinical predictors for malaria, ABM and treatment outcome in febrile children aged 2 months to 12 years with altered mentation at two tertiary hospitals in Northwestern Tanzania. Methods: Prospective study of 10...