Research Papers/Topics in Pediatrics

Common Bacterial Isolates And In Hospital Treatment Outcome Of Acute Bacterial Meningitis Among Children Suspected With Central Nervous System Infections Admitted At Dodoma Regional Referral

ABSTRACT Background: Bacterial meningitis, is an inflammation of the meninges affecting the pia, arachnoid, and subarachnoid space that happens in response to bacteria and bacterial products invasion. The incidence of ABM has decreased significantly in developed countries especially after the addition of the Hib and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines to the routine childhood immunization schedule, but in most developing countries little is known on how the introduction of these vaccines ha...

Prevalence, Aetiology, Antibiotics Sensitivity And Predictors Of Urinary Tract Infection Among Neonates With Clinical Sepsis Admitted At Dodoma Regional Referral Hospital Dodoma, Tanzania

ABSTRACT Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI)is among clinical problems in the neonatal period. Early and prompt diagnosis has important therapeutic implications. Clinical presentations are nonspecific and the severe disease may be fatal. There is scarce information in Tanzania regarding prevalence, aetiologies, antibiotic sensitivity and predictors of UTI among neonates. Objective: This study aimed at determining the prevalence, aetiology, antibiotics sensitivity and predictors ...

Prevalence, aetiology and factors associated with bacteremia among children aged 2 months to 5 years hospitalized with community acquired pneumonia at dodoma regional referral hospital.

ABSTRACT Background: Community-Acquired Pneumonia is among the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children below five years of age in developing countries. It is a second course of morbidity and mortality next to neonatal birth complications and bacteremia is one of complication which accelerates this. Different studies shows different prevalences of bacteremia among children with CAP and managed to isolate common organisms with associated features which helped them to chang...

Missed Opportunities for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria

Abstract Background: Nigeria has the largest paediatric HIV-infected population in the world. Missed op- portunities for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) compromise efforts at eliminating new pediatric HIV infections. Methods: Six hundred children, aged < 15 years, pre- senting to the pediatric units of the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan Southwest Nigeria between June to December 2007 were studied. The demographics, HIV status and socioeconomic status...

Service Uptake And Performance Of The Prevention Of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) Programme In Ibadan, Nigeria

Abstract The Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) prome in the University CoIlege Hospital (UCH), Ibadan has been in existence for more than five years and has scaled up to other sites. The study evaluated the service uptake and performance of the programme using national key indicators. Antenatal and delivery records of women enrolled between July 2002 and June 2007 were reviewed. A total of 51952 women attended first antenatal visits and received HIV pre-test counseli...

Safety of Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies in Nigeria: A Cohort Event Monitoring Study

Abstract Background A pilot programme of Cohort Event Monitoring (CEM) was conducted across the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria on patients treated for uncomplicated malaria with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). The emergence and spread of malaria parasites resistant to commonly available antimalarial drugs necessitated a shift in policy for malaria treatment by the Federal Government from the use of chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) as first-line treatm...

Outcomes Following Admission To Paediatric Intensive Care: A Systematic Review

ABSTRACTIntroductionPaediatric Intensive Care has developed rapidly in recent years with a dramatic increase insurvival rates. However, there are increasing concerns regarding the impact that admission toa Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) has on both the child and their family. Followingdischarge from PICU, children may be living with complex medical problems as well asdealing with the psychosocial impact that their illness has had on them and their family.ObjectivesTo describe the...

The Relationship between Ventricular Size and Visual Function in Children with Hydrocephalus

Summary&nbsp;We examined the relationship between ventricular size and visual function in 50 children (36 males and 14 females) with hydrocephalus. The third and lateral ventricular sizes and the visual function scores did not significantly differ between the sexes. Ventricular enlargement was most pronounced at the trigones and least at the level of the forarninae of Monro. The visual function score correlated inversely with the size of the latera! ventricle measured at the levels of the ant...

Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome In Kaduna State

ABSTRACT The clinicopathological features of childhood nephrotic syndrome in tropical Africa are different from those in temperate countries of Europe and America. However, detailed clinicopathological features of the disease have not been comprehensively described in all parts of Africa. Plasmodium malariae has been shown to be strongly associated with the disease in some parts of Africa, and the association has been postulated to be causal. Childhood nephrotic syndrome was studied...

Blood Pressure To Height Ratio As A Screening Tool For Prehypertension And Hypertension In Adolescents

Background: Current methods of detection of childhood hypertension are cumbersome and contribute to under-diagnosis hence, the need to generate simpler diagnostic tools. The blood pressure to height ratio has recently been proposed as a novel screening tool for prehypertension and hypertension in some populations. We evaluated its applicability in our environment. Materials and Methods: The weights, heights, and blood pressure measurements of 2364 apparently healthy adolescents were deter...

Acute Chest Syndrome In Sickle Cell Disease Patients: Experience From A Resource Constrained Setting

AbstractBACKGROUND: Sickle cell anemia is the most common inheritable hemoglobin disorder in the world with very high prevalence, morbidity, and mortality in Sub‑Saharan Africa. Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is one of the most common causes of mortality among individuals with the condition. The management of this condition involves watchful waiting which may be deleterious in resource‑constrained settings. The use of exchange blood transfusion&nbsp;(EBT) has been reported to be benefici...

Perinatal Mortality At The Close Of The 21st Century In Lagos University Teaching Hospital

Objective: To determine the perinatal mortality rate in Lagos University Teaching Hospital at the close of the 20th century.Materials and Methods: Routinely collected data from the Departments of Obstetrics & Gynaecology and Paediatrics from January 1996 to December 2000, were analysed. The data included total deliveries, stillbirths and early neonatal deaths.Results: A total of 6,759 deliveries, including 163 multiple pregnancies, occurred during the period. There were 573 perinatal dea...

Cardiac Surgery-Associated Acute Kidney Injury In A Developing Country: Prevalence, Risk Factors And Outcome

ABSTRACTLittle is known about cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CS-AKI) in children in developing regions of the world. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of CS- AKI, associated factors and its impact on mortality and utilization of hospital services. The hospital records of children aged 0–17 years who underwent CS at an Indian hospital were reviewed. CS-AKI was defined as a rise in serum creatinine of ≥0.3 mg/dL in any 48 h and or by urine output

Wasting And Stunting Are Still Prevalent In Children With Sickle Cell Anaemia In Lagos, Nigeria

Abstract Background: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is associated with growth failure. However, recent reports indicate high rates of overweight or obesity among children with SCA in developed countries. It is unclear whether overweight or obesity is also common in children with SCA in developing countries. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of overweight or obesity, wasting and stunting and identify predictors of wasting and stunting among children with SCA in Niger...

Irritable Bowel Syndrome In Adolescents In Lagos

Abstract Introduction: irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) which has been well described in western populations especially as the commonest cause of recurrent abdominal pain The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) amongst children in western Nigeria and increase the aware ness of IBS amongst physicians who manage children with abdominal pain. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study cond...


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