Research Papers/Topics in Pediatrics

Missed Opportunities for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria

Abstract Background: Nigeria has the largest paediatric HIV-infected population in the world. Missed op- portunities for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) compromise efforts at eliminating new pediatric HIV infections. Methods: Six hundred children, aged < 15 years, pre- senting to the pediatric units of the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan Southwest Nigeria between June to December 2007 were studied. The demographics, HIV status and socioeconomic status...

Service Uptake And Performance Of The Prevention Of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) Programme In Ibadan, Nigeria

Abstract The Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) prome in the University CoIlege Hospital (UCH), Ibadan has been in existence for more than five years and has scaled up to other sites. The study evaluated the service uptake and performance of the programme using national key indicators. Antenatal and delivery records of women enrolled between July 2002 and June 2007 were reviewed. A total of 51952 women attended first antenatal visits and received HIV pre-test counseli...

The Relationship between Ventricular Size and Visual Function in Children with Hydrocephalus

Summary&nbsp;We examined the relationship between ventricular size and visual function in 50 children (36 males and 14 females) with hydrocephalus. The third and lateral ventricular sizes and the visual function scores did not significantly differ between the sexes. Ventricular enlargement was most pronounced at the trigones and least at the level of the forarninae of Monro. The visual function score correlated inversely with the size of the latera! ventricle measured at the levels of the ant...

Acute Chest Syndrome In Sickle Cell Disease Patients: Experience From A Resource Constrained Setting

AbstractBACKGROUND: Sickle cell anemia is the most common inheritable hemoglobin disorder in the world with very high prevalence, morbidity, and mortality in Sub‑Saharan Africa. Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is one of the most common causes of mortality among individuals with the condition. The management of this condition involves watchful waiting which may be deleterious in resource‑constrained settings. The use of exchange blood transfusion&nbsp;(EBT) has been reported to be benefici...

Perinatal Mortality At The Close Of The 21st Century In Lagos University Teaching Hospital

Objective: To determine the perinatal mortality rate in Lagos University Teaching Hospital at the close of the 20th century.Materials and Methods: Routinely collected data from the Departments of Obstetrics & Gynaecology and Paediatrics from January 1996 to December 2000, were analysed. The data included total deliveries, stillbirths and early neonatal deaths.Results: A total of 6,759 deliveries, including 163 multiple pregnancies, occurred during the period. There were 573 perinatal dea...

Wasting And Stunting Are Still Prevalent In Children With Sickle Cell Anaemia In Lagos, Nigeria

Abstract Background: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is associated with growth failure. However, recent reports indicate high rates of overweight or obesity among children with SCA in developed countries. It is unclear whether overweight or obesity is also common in children with SCA in developing countries. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of overweight or obesity, wasting and stunting and identify predictors of wasting and stunting among children with SCA in Niger...

Irritable Bowel Syndrome In Adolescents In Lagos

Abstract Introduction: irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) which has been well described in western populations especially as the commonest cause of recurrent abdominal pain The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) amongst children in western Nigeria and increase the aware ness of IBS amongst physicians who manage children with abdominal pain. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study cond...

A Review Of 10 Years Autopsy Of Children With Cardiovascular Disorders

SUMMARY Objectives: To review the prevalence and pattern of cardiovascular disorders in childhood autopsies in Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH). To also determine the frequency of associated extra cardiac complications and characteristics of children with cardiovascular diseases that died. Materials and Methods: The autopsy register of the department of Morbid anatomy for the years 1991 to 2000 in LUTH was retrospectively reviewed. Data extracted including age, sex, primary diag...

Cyclosporine In The Treatment Of Childhood Idiopathic Steroid Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome: A Single Centre Experience In Nigeria

Abstract Introduction: Children with steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome usually require treatment with second-line agents and calcineurin inhibitors such as cyclosporine are now recommended as initial therapy. These agents only recently become available in our environment and their impact on care is unknown. We reviewed the short-term treatment outcomes of their use in comparison with previous outcomes. Methods: Medical records of children managed for idiopathic steroid resistant nephro...

Bubble CPAP In The Management Of Respiratory Distress Syndrome In Resource Constrained Settings: The Luth Experience

Abstract Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a common health problem especially in preterm newborns. In Nigeria, prematurity accounts for about 25% of neonatal mortality and RDS have been identified as the major cause of these deaths. The major problem in RDS is immaturity of the lungs with deficiency of surfactant. Surfactant reduces surface tension in the alveoli, thereby preventing collapse of the lungs during expiration. Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) is a...

Sporadic Emergence Of Probable Cases Of Diphtheria

&nbsp;AbstractBackground: Vaccine preventable diseases still account for a large proportion of childhood morbidity and mortality in children less than five of age. The decline in immunization coverage over the years has worsened this resulting in the re-emergence of hitherto controlled infections such as diphtheria.Objective: To review the presentation, management and outcome of cases of probable diphtheria seen at the children emergency centre at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital....

Deletion Syndrome In Diverse Populations

ABSTRACT22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome and is underdiagnosed in diverse populations. This syndrome has a variable phenotype and affects multiple systems, making early recognition imperative. In this study, individuals from diverse populations with 22q11.2 DS were evaluated clinically and by facial analysis technology. Clinical information from 106 individuals and images from 101 were collected from individuals with 22q11.2 DS from 11 coun...

Food Allergy: Two Case Reports And Management Challenges In A Resource-Limited Setting

Background: Food allergy has been well described in white children, and cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA) still remains the most common allergy in these children. Information on the same subject in developing countries is very limited, and management of this condition remains challenging. Case presentation: We report on two cases of children with multiple food allergies. The first patient presented with chronic diarrhoea following the introduction and use of several infant formulas, whi...

Maternal Exclusive Breast-Feeding Practice In Calabar, Nigeria: Some Related Social Characteristics

ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE : to determine the social characteristic of mother who practice exclusive breast feeding in Calabar. SUBJECT AND METHODS: a prospective questionnaire based cross sectional survey of breast feeding practices among mothers of children aged 0-24 months was carried out in Calabar in April 1998. Using WHO indicators for assessing breast feeding practices the exclusive breast feeding rate was determined in mothers of children aged 0-6months. This study documents the so...

Urethral Prolapse In A Five Year Old Girl

ABSTRACTUrethral prolapse is a rare cause of vaginal bleeding in prepubertal females and occurs most commonly in black people. It is characterized by a sliding outward of the urethral mucosa around the entire urethral meatus. Because it can present with vaginal bleeding in a child, it can be mistaken for sexual abuse. We report a five year old girl with urethral prolapse that was mistaken for complications of sexual abuse. She was treated by complete excision of the urethral prolapse wi...


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