Research Papers/Topics in Pediatrics

Sporadic Emergence Of Probable Cases Of Diphtheria

 AbstractBackground: Vaccine preventable diseases still account for a large proportion of childhood morbidity and mortality in children less than five of age. The decline in immunization coverage over the years has worsened this resulting in the re-emergence of hitherto controlled infections such as diphtheria.Objective: To review the presentation, management and outcome of cases of probable diphtheria seen at the children emergency centre at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital....

Deletion Syndrome In Diverse Populations

ABSTRACT22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome and is underdiagnosed in diverse populations. This syndrome has a variable phenotype and affects multiple systems, making early recognition imperative. In this study, individuals from diverse populations with 22q11.2 DS were evaluated clinically and by facial analysis technology. Clinical information from 106 individuals and images from 101 were collected from individuals with 22q11.2 DS from 11 coun...

Food Allergy: Two Case Reports And Management Challenges In A Resource-Limited Setting

Background: Food allergy has been well described in white children, and cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA) still remains the most common allergy in these children. Information on the same subject in developing countries is very limited, and management of this condition remains challenging. Case presentation: We report on two cases of children with multiple food allergies. The first patient presented with chronic diarrhoea following the introduction and use of several infant formulas, whi...

Maternal Exclusive Breast-Feeding Practice In Calabar, Nigeria: Some Related Social Characteristics

ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE : to determine the social characteristic of mother who practice exclusive breast feeding in Calabar. SUBJECT AND METHODS: a prospective questionnaire based cross sectional survey of breast feeding practices among mothers of children aged 0-24 months was carried out in Calabar in April 1998. Using WHO indicators for assessing breast feeding practices the exclusive breast feeding rate was determined in mothers of children aged 0-6months. This study documents the so...

Urethral Prolapse In A Five Year Old Girl

ABSTRACTUrethral prolapse is a rare cause of vaginal bleeding in prepubertal females and occurs most commonly in black people. It is characterized by a sliding outward of the urethral mucosa around the entire urethral meatus. Because it can present with vaginal bleeding in a child, it can be mistaken for sexual abuse. We report a five year old girl with urethral prolapse that was mistaken for complications of sexual abuse. She was treated by complete excision of the urethral prolapse wi...

In Hospital Outcome Of Children Referred For Cardiac Surgery Abroad From A Developing Country

ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Cardiac surgery is the definitive intervention for structural heart diseases particularly of congenital aetiology in children. Unfortunately, most developing countries currently lack adequate capacity for pediatric cardiac surgery often necessitating referral to foreign countries with appropriate facilities and capacities. We hereby report the in-hospital outcome of Nigerian children referred from Lagos University Teaching Hospital to undergo cardiac surgery abroad. ...

Factors Influencing HIV Seroprevalence Rate Among Pregnant Women In Calabar Nigeria

ABSTRACTHuman immune deficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence among pregnant women in Calabar was studied. The aims were to establish HIV seroprevalence rate and to identify factors which influence this rate in our pregnant women. HIV seroprevalence rate of 2.7% among antenatal women in Calabar was recorded with a vertical transmission rate of 20%. Husband and wife not living together, history of induced abortion and blood transfusion significantly increase HIV seroprevalence rate among an...

Paediatric HIV Infection/AIDS In Three Of Four Children From Two Consecutive Twin Deliveries

SUMMARYVertical infection by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among two consecutive pair of twins from a well to do family is presented. While the first twin of the first pair must have been infected in-utero, the second may have been infected at parturition of through breast milk. Severe protein-energy malnutrition was the main mode of presentation. A recommendation is made for routine screening of pregnant women during ante-natal care with family planning counselling of positive...

Childhood Mortality In Children Emergency Centre Of The Lagos University Teaching Hospital

Abstract Background: Infant and childhood mortality has remained high in developing countries like Nigeria with only marginal reductions achieved over the past two decades despite several interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality from the common causes of death in children. It is therefore important to examine the current pattern of mortality in children and compare it with previous reports from this centre so as to determine if newer interventions are needed or if these ...

An 8-Year Review Of Major Congenital Abnormalities In A Tertiary Hospital In Lagos, Nigeria

Abstract: Background: Congenital abnormalities are defects present at birth and are increasingly becoming an important cause of neonatal mortality. They can also result in disability in majority of the survivors. Objective: To describe the pattern and outcome of major congenital abnormalities (MCA) in a tertiary hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods: The labour ward and labour ward theatre delivery records and admission records of the in-born ward of the neonatal unit of a tertiary h...

Estimation of the Risk of Cancer Associated with Pediatric Cranial Computed Tomography

Computed Tomography (CT) is a Iife saving tool for diagnosing Illness and injury in children (0 - 12 years). The use of computed tomography scan of the head, abdomenlpehris, chest or spine in children has increased were the last three decades [I]. Approximately 5 to 9 million CT examinations are performed annually on children in the United States 121. The increased use of CT in pediatrics, combined with variability in radiation doses, has resulted in many children receiving a high do...