Public Health Research Papers/Topics

Characterization of tungiasis infection and morbidity using thermography in Kenya revealed higher disease burden during COVID-19 school closures

Abstract: Background Tungiasis is a neglected tropical skin disease caused by the sand flea Tunga penetrans. Female fleas penetrate the skin, particularly at the feet, and cause severe inflammation. This study aimed to characterize disease burden in two highly affected regions in Kenya, to test the use of thermography to detect tungiasis-associated inflammation and to create a new two-level classification of disease severity suitable for mapping, targeting, and monitoring interventions. Meth...

Urbanization of Aedes mosquito populations and evolution of arboviral disease risk in Africa

Abstract: The arboviral diseases dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever are re-merging and gaining a foothold in Africa, with a significant threat of large outbreaks in urban areas. Although their emergence is intimately linked to the primary vector Aedes aegypti, which thrives in urban environments, the risk of these diseases remains substantially heterogeneous in different geographic areas. Range expansion of invasive mosquito species Aedes albopictus, and colonization of urban habitats by ...

The combined impact of LLINs, house screening, and pull-push technology for improved malaria control and livelihoods in rural Ethiopia: study protocol for household randomised controlled tria

Abstract: Background The combined application of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are commonly used malaria interventions that target indoor Anopheles vectors. Recent studies on the effects of house screening (HS) and LLINs have demonstrated a reduction in indoor vector densities and malaria when the interventions are combined. In addition, complementary interventions are needed to curb co-occurring pest populations which pose menace to agricultural c...

Household perception and infestation dynamics of bedbugs among residential communities and its potential distribution in Africa

Abstract: Bedbugs have experienced an extraordinary upsurge in the recent past across the world. This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the community perception of the pest outbreaks, the population dynamics, and dispersal patterns under different habitat systems. A survey was conducted within communities in nine counties in Kenya, where geographical coordinates of the sites of bedbug presence were recorded and maximum entropy distribution modelling (MaxEnt) was used to map and predict ...

Examining the Intersection between Gender, Community Health Workers, and Vector Control Policies: A Text Mining Literature Review

Abstract: Gender intersects with healthcare systems; this is equally true for arboviral vector control efforts. However,there is as yet no comprehensive analysis as to how vector control is gendered. Hence, our objective is to provide thefirst thematic scoping and spatial distribution of the literature on gender, community health workers, and vector control.The authors use a systematic review approach to collect the academic literature on gender, community health workers,and vector control i...

Developing low-cost house floors to control tungiasis in Kenya – a feasibility study

Abstract: Context Tungiasis is a neglected tropical skin disease endemic in resource-poor communities. It is caused by the penetration of the female sand flea, Tunga penetrans, into the skin causing immense pain, itching, difficulty walking, sleeping and concentrating on school or work. Infection is associated with living in a house with unsealed earthen house floors. Methods This feasibility study used a community-based co-creation approach to develop and test simple, locally appropriate, a...

Socioeconomic burden of trypanosomiasis: Evidence from crop and livestock production in Ethiopia

Abstract: This paper estimates the impact of trypanosomiasis on crop-livestock production, economic loss and poverty in Ethiopia. We use unique panel data to estimate how the disease affects livestock deaths, production costs and crop production. We then use these estimates to evaluate the disease's total economic loss and its implications on poverty in the study districts and the country. Estimates of the fixed effect regression models indicate that trypanosomiasis increases the value of li...

Awareness, knowledge and attitude on cleft lip and palate among antenatal clinic attendees of tertiary hospitals in Nigeria

Background: Adequate knowledge and awareness of cleft lip and palate (CLP) deformity may help to counter thenegative beliefs and attitudes toward the condition. The objective of this study was to assess the level of awareness,knowledge and attitude of women attending antenatal clinics about CLP.Materials and Methods: A cross‑sectional descriptive study with the aid of a structured interview administeredquestionnaire was conducted among 200 women attending antenatal clinics in three Federal ...

Prevalence of Hydatid Cysts in Liver and Lungs of Cattle Slaughtered in Selected Abattoirs in Northern Nigeria

ABSTRACT  This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and fertility of Hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus in Cattle slaughtered in selected abattoirs in Northern Nigeria and Federal Capital Territory (FCT) from February to December, 2022. Gross examination was carried out by visual inspection and palpation of lungs and liver of 1,881 Cattle in order to determine the availability and organ localization of hydatid cysts. A total of 95(5.1%) of the study population harboured one ...

Effects of Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment on Complete Blood Count Parameters

Aim: This study assesses the effects of HAART on complete blood count parameters among HIV infected participants. Study Design: Case control study. Place and Methods: This study was conducted in Tamale, Ghana from August, 2016 to December, 2017. Methodology: A total of 300 HIV infected participants with ages ranging from 19–79 years, administered with HAART for at least 6 months were recruited. Pre-HAART administration (baseline) demographic and clinical information, with initial full bloo...

Hepatitis B and C Status and Associated Risk Factors among Migrant Female Head Porters [Kayayei] within La-Nkwantanang Madina Municipality, Ghana

Aim: This study was conducted to determine the knowledge, prevalence and associated risk factors of viral hepatitis among migrant female head porters (Kayayei) in La-Nkwantanang Madina municipality of the Greater Accra region, Ghana. Study Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at three market centers [Atima, LaNkwantanang and Madina markets] within the La-Nkwantanang Madina municipality of the Greater Accra region, Gh...

Effects of Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment on Liver and Kidney Functions

Aim: This study assesses the effects of HAART on liver and renal functions in HIV infected individuals on HAART. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Methods: This study was conducted in Tamale, Ghana from August, 2015 to November 2017. Methodology: A total of 300 HIV infected participants with ages ranging from 19 to 79 years who have been administered with HAART for at least 6 months were recruited. Pre-HAART administration (baseline) demographic and clinical information, with ini...

Neutrophil to Lymphocyte ratio versus Monocyte to Lymphocyte ratio in predicting hypertensive diseases of pregnancy

Background: The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR) are two systemic inflammatory indices with promising prognostic and predictive abilities for HDP. The study aimed to determine the abilities of the NLR and MLR in predicting HDP among pregnant women in Ghana. Methods: This was a case-control study that was carried out between September 2015 and May 2016 at the Bolgatanga regional hospital. The study involved 50 pregnant women of whom 60% (30/50) ha...

Correlation between maternal variables and the onset and severity of preeclampsia [version 1; peer review: awaiting

Background: The study sought to determine the correlation between the onset and severity of preeclampsia (PE) and maternal sociodemographic variables: age, parity and body mass index (BMI); medical history: systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and proteinuria; fasting lipids: total cholesterol (TCHOL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides (TRIG); liver enzymes: aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and gam...

Placental and Umbilical Cord Morphometry in Hypertensive Diseases of Pregnancy

Aims: Hypertensive diseases of pregnancy (HDP) may be characterized by changes in the morphometry of the placenta and umbilical cord which may affect normal foetal growth and development. This study aimed to determine changes in the morphometry of the placenta and umbilical cord in HDP. Study Design: A case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Bolgatanga Regional Hospital between September 2015 and May 2016. Methodology: The study included 49 pregnant wom...


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