Research Papers/Topics in Applied Chemistry

Simulated Modeling: Contrasting Ca/Mg And Mn+-natural Organic Matter Competitive Complexation In Water

Complexing capacities of calcium and magnesium with natural organic matter (NOM)/selected organic chelating agents, in the presence and absence of other major and trace cations in water, were studied by anodic and cathodic square wave stripping voltammetry techniques (ASWSV and CSWSV). Under predetermined and optimized physico-chemical parameters (pH, temperature and ionic strength), calcium-NOM complexation and competitive complexation by other elements of known conc...

Evaluation Of The Fuel Properties And Thermal Efficiency Of Sub-Bituminous Coal-Biomass Blends

ABSTRACTThe improvement of the combustion properties of coal and biomass by blending andcarbonization was investigated. Proximate and ultimate analysis of coal, sawdust, corn coband their blends were carried out using ASTM methods. The proximate and ultimate analyseswere repeated on the five blends after carbonization at 500oC for one hour. Ten mixtures ofcoal-sawdust and coal-corn cob blends were made into briquettes using starch binder. Thecalorific values of the samples were determined usi...

Evaluation Of Chemical Compositions And Antioxidant Properties Of Mentha Spicata And Cymbopogon Citratus Leaves

ABSTRACTEvaluation of chemical composition of C. citratus and M. spicata, gave the following proximate composition on dry weight basis: moisture; (1.67±0.29%) and (2.67±0.29%), ash; (7.52±0.30%) and (24.4±0.35%), crude lipid; (6.67±0.28%) and (6.17±0.27%), crude fibre; (24.67±0.29%) and (2.67±0.29%), crude protein;(17.44±0.12%) and (25.32±0.13%), available carbohydrate (42.03±0.32%) and (39.78±1.11%), energy value; (297.91) and (315.93) respectively. ...

Optimisation Of Bioethanol Production From Some Plants Waste Using Acids Pretreatment

ABSTRACTThe potentials of Saw dust, Rice husk and Groundnut shells were investigated for bioethanol production. The substrates were pretreated using 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% solution of dilute H2SO4 and HCl. The pretreated substrates were thermally treated at 1050C in order to detoxify them. The pretreated substrates obtained using different concentrations of acids were fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Yeast). The results show that Rice husk treated with 4% H2SO4 (2...

Molecular mechanism of action of tyrocidine antimicrobial peptides using NMR spectroscopy and computational techniques

Abstract The need to come up with new and novel antibiotics that utilize unique mechanisms, to which bacteria cannot generate resistance, was the main motivation of this study. Tyrocidine peptides are non-selective antibiotics that have such properties. However, very limited information is available about their mechanism of action. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of action of tyrocidine peptides, tyrocidine A, tyrocidine B and tyrocidine C. Chapter 3 explor...

Comparative Studies And Synergistic Effect Of Senna Alata, Ricinus Communis Leaves And Lannea Barteri Stem Bark Extracts And Their Formulation On Pathogenic Bacteria And Fungus

ABSTRACT Three medicinal plant parts, including the leaves of Senna alata, Ricinus communis and the stem bark of Lannea barteri were used for the current study. The aim was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of the crude extracts alone, their combinations and the crude extracts formulated individually with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and Shea butter, as well as phytochemical screening of the medicinal plants crude extracts. The microorganisms employed in this study were E. coli, ...

Mechanism For The Adsorption Of Mucin On Hydroxyapatite

ABSTRACTThe adsorptive ability of mUCIn onto hydroxyapatite was evaluated based on its adsorptive amount and adsorptive strength. The adsorptive amount was determined by measuring the amount of mucin adsorbed onto hydroxyapatite while adsorptive strength was determined by measuring the amount of mucin remaining adsorbed after rinsing. The amount of mucin adsorbed onto the substrates in all cases followed the order Sigma grade HAP> synthesized HAP> CHP and generally in...

Immortalization Of B Cells From Plasmodium Falciparum Exposed Individuals For The Production Of P Arasite- Specific Antibodies

ABSTRACT The continuous production of antibodies with desired properties has become very important in fields, such as biomedical research and in medicine. Methods for making such useful antibodies include the hybridoma technology and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transformation of antibody- secreting cells (ASCs) to make them live longer in ex vivo culture. Transformed cells are then capable of multiplying rapidly over longer periods and producing large amounts of the desired antibodies....

Phytochemical Screening And Antibacterial Studies Of Euphorbia Balsamifera Leaves (Aguwa)

ABSTRACTEuphorbia balsamifera plant belongs to the family of Euphorbiaceae. Leaves, stems and roots of Euphorbia balsamifera were extracted using ethanol and the extracts were screened for phytochemical components. The phytochemical results indicated that the plant contained tannins, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, glycosides, terpenoids, alkaloids, and anthraquinones. Ethanol extract of leaves and its fractions were tested for antibacterial activity using agar well d...

Characterisation of Clay Deposit in Gwandu Town of Kebbi State and its Potential in Ceramic Production

AbstractCharacterization and analysis of Gwandu clay deposits has been conducted with a view to finding its possible industrial applications. The chemical analysis was carried out using XRF and thermal stability was determined using TGA. While the physical property tests such as firing shrinkage, porosity, cold crushing strength, bulk density, thermal shock resistance and refractoriness were done. The results of chemical analysis indicates that Dabagi clay is composed...

Nutritional and Antinutritional Analysis of the Seed and Seed Oil of Citrullus Ecirrhosis (Wild Melon)

AbstractAttempt was made to determine the nutritional and anti nutritional composition of Wild melon (C. ecirrhosus ) popularly known as “Gunar shanu in Hausa land, using suitable methods of analyses. The results for proximate analyses (% DW) showed a composition of 3.73 ± moisture, 2.12 ± 0.08 ash content, 26.36 ± 0.10 crude protein, 50.67 ± crude lipid, 2.17 ± 0.29 crude fibre, 18.69 ± 0.82 carbohydrate and energy value of 601.7 ± 8.75 Kcal/ 100g. Amino aci...

Optimization of Biodiesel from Coconut (Cocos Nucifera) Seed Oil

ABSTRACTCoconut seeds was investigated for its use as biodiesel feedstock. Oil was extracted from coconut seeds using soxhlet extraction method where 67.2% yield of oil was obtained. Biodiesel synthesis was developed and optimized using Box-Behnken design in Response Surface Methodology to study the effect of experimental variables such as methanol to oil ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature and reaction time on the extracted oil from coconut seeds.&nbs...

Synthesis Of A Quaternary Ammonium Salt From Epoxide And Fatty Amine And Evaluation Of Its Antimicrobial Properties

ABSTRACTQuaternary ammonium compound was synthesized from epoxy and fatty amine reaction. Fourier Transform Infrared(FTIR) spectrometric analysis of the starting materials, and the final product(N-benzyl-N,N-dioctyl-2-hydroxy-3 phenoxypropylammonium chloride) were conducted, and results showed a disappearance of sharp N-H peak of 2o amine, and appearance of broad O-H peak of alcohol in the spectrum of the final product. Mass spectrometric(MS)analysis of the final product was also conducted, a...

THE EFFECT OF BUCCHOLZIA CORIACEA ON RENAL FUNCTION INDICES AND OXIDATIVE STRESS IN SUCROSE FED PREGNANT RATS AND THEIR OFFSPRINGS

ABSTRACT  This study examined the nephrotic effect of Buchholzia coriacea formulated diet in sucrose-fed pregnant rats and their offspring. Buchholzia coriacea (B. coriacea) (family, capparidaceae) is a perennial plant commonly known as wonderful kola. Seeds were obtained from ogbete main market, Enugu state, identified, dried and grounded using a miller machine. 10% of the seed powder was used to formulate their diet. Thirty (240) adult female and six (6) adult male albino rats...

Removal Of Heavy Metal Ions From Waste Water Using A Groundnut Shell And Tea Bag As A Natural Adsorbent

ABSTRACT Sample of waste collected at Kanwuri Area Sokoto, was analyzed using a groundnut shell and tea bag as natural adsorbent, by adopting the method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. And this research showed that groundnut shell and tea bag can be effectively used as an excellent adsorbent for the removal of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cr, from aqueous solution. This study also highlights the effect of different parameters such as, contact time, PH, adsorbent dose initial concentration of...


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