Research Papers/Topics in Applied Chemistry

Corrosion Inhibition of 5-Methyl-2H-imidazol-4-carboxaldehyde and 1H-Indole-3-carboxyaldehyde on Mild Steel in 1.0 M HCl: Gravimetric Method and DFT Study.

AbstractWeight loss and Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods were used to study the corrosion inhibition of 5-methyl-2H-imidazol-4-carboxaldehyde and 1H-Indole-3-carboxaldehyde on mild steel in acid medium. The values of thermodynamic parameters such as free energy of adsorption (ΔGºads), adsorption equilibrium constant (Kads), adsorption entropy (ΔSºads), adsorption enthalpy (ΔHºads) and activation energy (Ea) were calculated and discussed. The adsorption process on mild steel surfa...

Levels Of Selected Essential Elements In Four Parts Of Three Varieties Of Watermelons Sold In Githurai And Mwea Markets In Kenya

Watermelons belong to the family cucurbitaceous, they are fruits like cantaloupe, pumpkin and similar to plants that grow on vines on the ground. There are over 1,200 varieties of watermelons in the world, several of these varieties have been recommended for Kenya range of climate, however only three varieties are commercially grown in Kenya namely; the Charleston Grey (Sugar F1), Crimson sweet (Zebra) and Sugar baby. Watermelon has four distinct parts; the seeds, the pink flesh, the wh...

Geophysical Investigation Of Mbeu Iron Ore Deposit In Meru County Using Gravity Method

ABSTRACTGravity survey was used to detect metallic bearing rocks and dense bodies of rocks within host formations in Mbeu area of Tigania. From the study, there is a clear indication of the presence of iron ore in the region. The ground based gravimeter was used to precisely measure variation in the gravity fields at different points. A total of 86 gravity stations were surveyed. The data obtained was corrected for drift, latitude, Free Air and Bouguer corrections fro...

Synthesis, Characterization, Bioassay And Density Functional Theory Studies Of Cationic Iron Half Sandwich Complexes Of Selected Heterofunctional Active Pharmaceutical Agents

ABSTRACTThe molecular modification of purely organic drugs by the incorporation of a metal atom is an active area of research. However, there is paucity of data in the use of half sandwich organometallic fragments and in particular the cationic iron half sandwich, [ɳ5-C5H5(CO)2Fe]+, in structural modification of drug molecules. The cationic iron half sandwich organometallic fragment provides a metal centre that could participate in biochemical reactions with potentially the desirable benefit...

Structure-Repellence Studies On Synthesized Stereoisomers Of Menthane-Diol And Analogues Against The Rhipicephalus Appendiculatus

ABSTRACT Tick-borne infections of livestock are wide-spread in Africa and present a great constraint to livestock development, particularly in the improvement of local breeds. This problem is compounded by the high susceptibility of foreign breeds of livestock being used to improve livestock productivity in many African countries. Brown Ear tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, is the most economically important of the 40-70 African tick species. This is due to the fact that it is a highl...

Hydrogeochemical Analysis And Modelling Of Ground Water In Mbeere South Sub-County, Embu County, Kenya

ABSTRACTClean water is an essential commodity for a healthy nation. A fifth of all water used in the world is obtained from groundwater. In arid and semi-arid areas, groundwater is the main source of water for domestic and irrigation purposes. The semi-arid climate, few perennial water bodies and growing population in Mbeere South, Embu County has resulted into increased use of groundwater for both domestic and irrigation necessities. This has put pressure on these wa...

The Potential Of Bioactive Protectants Of Maize Grains Against Sitophilus Zeamais In Western Kenya

ABSTRACTIn African tropical zones, cereals are kept as grains or flour in storage structures and constitute important source of income for farmers. Protecting stored product in this case is an emergency to ensure food security for people living in these areas of deficiency where agriculture is not highly productive. Some of the pursued measures include physical, traditional, and biological methods; and application of synthetic pesticides. The above techniques have some problems including cons...

Positron Impact Excitation Of 21s State Of Helium Atom Using A Distorted Wave Method

ABSTRACTThe study of excitation of helium atom by positron impact has drawn considerableattention since the prediction of existence of the positron by Dirac in 1928.This is due tothe fact that the study of atomic collisions forms the basis for understanding of manyscientific phenomena in the planetary atmosphere and Astrophysical science. In this studythe excitation of helium atom to the is state by positron impact using the DistortedWave formula has been done. Previously, studies have been d...

Study Of Reactions Of Molybdenum(Ii) And Tungsten(Ii) Halocarbonyls With Nitrogen Bases

ABSTRACTThe study focused on the possible oxidation of various nitrogen bases by molybdenum(II) and tungsten(II) halocarbonyls, formation of zerovalent aminecarbonyl metal complexes and mode of coordination of nicotine to molybdenum and tungsten. Aminecarbonyls of the type M(CO)3L3 (M=Mo, W; L= CH3NH2, CH3CH2)2NH), M(CO)4TMEDA and M(CO)5nicotine were prepared by a reaction of the halocarbonyls [M(CO)4X2]2 (M=Mo, W; X=Br or Cl) with selected nitrogen bases. The crystal structurse of Mo(CO)4TME...

Removal Of Chlorinated Organic Compounds In Water With Substrate Anchored Zero Valent Bimetals

ABSTRACTChlorine in drinking water, surface or underground water is a concern of public health. This is because chlorine reacts with nitrogen containing organic compounds to form polychlorinated complexes that are carcinogenic. However, chlorine is dissolved in water for the sake of disinfecting with a view to killing pathogens in water to make it safe for human consumption. After that initial addition, some chlorine is left in the water and continues with the chlorination process of the orga...

Studies On Retention Of Beta-Carotene Extracted From Amaranthus Species Preserved In Virgin Coconut Oil And Unadulterated Honey

ABSTRACTDark green leafy vegetables (DGLV) such as Amaranthus spp are known to be good sources of beta-carotene, a pro-vitamin A carotenoid and a highly potent anti-oxidant. Anti-oxidants terminate chain reactions, prevent recurrence and also prevent the formation of unstable oxygen which otherwise can initiates a chain reaction that propagates to cancerous cell. Cancer is strongly attributed to poor diet as well as lack of exercise. New cancer cases are diagnosed daily, leading to a projecti...

Modified Bio-Sorbents For Pre-Concentration Of Essential Trace Elements From Raw And Fermented Selected Foods

  ABSTRACT This study reports a new method of pre-concentrating Zn2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Mo6+ and I- ions present in food stuffs using modified bio-sorbents. These elements are in low levels in many food stuffs commonly consumed and some are way below the recommended daily intake (RDI). Examples of mitigating such situations include the addition of iodine to table salt in minute portions. However, table salt in foods increases sodium levels causing problems to consumers with ...

Simulated Modeling: Contrasting Ca/Mg And Mn+-natural Organic Matter Competitive Complexation In Water

Complexing capacities of calcium and magnesium with natural organic matter (NOM)/selected organic chelating agents, in the presence and absence of other major and trace cations in water, were studied by anodic and cathodic square wave stripping voltammetry techniques (ASWSV and CSWSV). Under predetermined and optimized physico-chemical parameters (pH, temperature and ionic strength), calcium-NOM complexation and competitive complexation by other elements of known conc...

Molecular mechanism of action of tyrocidine antimicrobial peptides using NMR spectroscopy and computational techniques

Abstract The need to come up with new and novel antibiotics that utilize unique mechanisms, to which bacteria cannot generate resistance, was the main motivation of this study. Tyrocidine peptides are non-selective antibiotics that have such properties. However, very limited information is available about their mechanism of action. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of action of tyrocidine peptides, tyrocidine A, tyrocidine B and tyrocidine C. Chapter 3 explor...

Comparative Studies And Synergistic Effect Of Senna Alata, Ricinus Communis Leaves And Lannea Barteri Stem Bark Extracts And Their Formulation On Pathogenic Bacteria And Fungus

ABSTRACT Three medicinal plant parts, including the leaves of Senna alata, Ricinus communis and the stem bark of Lannea barteri were used for the current study. The aim was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of the crude extracts alone, their combinations and the crude extracts formulated individually with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and Shea butter, as well as phytochemical screening of the medicinal plants crude extracts. The microorganisms employed in this study were E. coli, ...


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