Applied Entomology Research Papers/Topics

Beyond sperm and male accessory gland proteins: Exploring insect reproductive metabolomes

Abstract: Insect seminal fluid, the non-sperm component of the ejaculate, comprises a variegated set of molecules, including, but not limited to, lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, salts,hormones, nucleic acids, and vitamins. The identity and functional role of seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) have been widely investigated, in multiple species. However, most of the other small molecules in insect ejaculates remain uncharacterized. Metabolomics is currently adopted to deepen our understanding of c...

Chemical Cues From Honeydew and Cuticular Extracts of Trialeurodes Vaporariorum Serve as Kairomones for The Parasitoid Encarsia Formosa

Abstract: Kairomones are semiochemicals that are emitted by an organism and which mediate interspecific interaction that is of benefit to an organism of another species that receives these chemical substances. Parasitoids find and recognize their hosts through eavesdropping on the kairomones emitted from the by-products or the body of the host. Hemipteran insect pests feed on plant sap and excrete the digested plant materials as honeydew. Honeydew serves as a nutritional food source for para...

Monitoring Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) with Baited Bottom Board Traps: Occurrence and Seasonal Abundance in Honey Bee Colonies in Kenya

Abstract: The population dynamics of the honey bee pest Aethina tumida Murray (small hive beetle) have been studied in the United States with ßight and Langstroth hive bottom board traps baited with pollen dough inoculated with a yeast Kodamaea ohmeri associated with the beetle.However, little is known about the population dynamics of the beetle in its native host range. Similarly baited Langstroth hive bottom board traps were used to monitor the occurrence and seasonal abundance of the bee...

Blood meal analysis of tsetse flies (Glossina pallidipes: Glossinidae) reveals higher host fidelity on wild compared with domestic hosts

Abstract: Background: Changes in climate and land use can alter risk of transmission of parasites between domestic hosts and wildlife,particularly when mediated by vectors that can travel between populations. Here we focused on tsetse flies (genus Glossina), the cyclical vectors for both Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) and Animal African Trypanosomiasis (AAT). The aims of this study were to investigate three issues related to G. palldipes from Kenya: 1) the diversity of vertebrate hosts ...

Using sibship reconstructions to understand the relationship between larval habitat productivity and oviposition behaviour in Kenyan Anopheles arabiensis

Abstract: Background: Strategies for combatting residual malaria by targeting vectors outdoors are gaining importance as the limitations of primary indoor interventions are reached. Strategies to target ovipositing females or her ofspring are broadly applicable because all mosquitoes require aquatic habitats for immature development irrespective of their biting or resting preferences. Oviposition site selection by gravid females is frequently studied by counting early instar larvae in habita...

Impact of vector control interventions on malaria transmission intensity, outdoor vector biting rates and Anopheles mosquito species composition in Tororo, Uganda

Abstract: Background: Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying of insecticide (IRS) are widely recommended for the prevention of malaria in endemic regions. Data from human landing catches provide information on the impact of vector control on vector populations. Here, malaria transmission indoors and outdoors, before and after mass deployment of LLINs and IRS in Uganda was compared. Methods: The study took place in Tororo district, a historically high transmission...

Dim-light vision in jumping spiders (Araneae, Salticidae): identification of prey and rivals.

Abstract: Jumping spiders (family Salticidae) are known for their intricate vision-based behavior during encounters with prey and conspecific individuals. This is achieved using eyes specialized for discerning fine detail, but there has been minimal research on the capacity that salticids might have for visual performance under low ambient light levels. Here, we investigated the capacity of two salticid species, Cyrba algerina from Portugal and Cyrba ocellata from Kenya, to perform two speci...

Spatial acuity-sensitivity trade-off in the principal eyes of a jumping spider: possible adaptations to a ‘blended’ lifestyle

Abstract: Jumping spiders (Salticidae) are diurnal visual predators known for elaborate, vision-mediated behaviour achieved through the coordinated work of four pairs of camera-type eyes. One pair (‘principal’ eyes) is responsible for colour and high spatial acuity vision, while three pairs (‘secondary’ eyes) are mostly responsible for motion detection. Based on its unusual capacity to visually discriminate specific prey in very low, but also under bright light settings, we investiga...

Promoting insect Farming and Household Consumption through Agricultural Training and Nutrition Education in Africa: A study protocol for a multisite cluster-randomized controlled trial

Abstract: Edible insects are a sustainable source of high-quality animal protein. Insect farming is gaining interest globally, particularly in low-income countries, where it may provide substantial nutritional and economic benefits. To enhance insect farming practices in Africa, new farming systems are being developed. However, knowledge on how to best promote uptake of these systems is lacking. This study aims to fill this gap by investigating the effectiveness of educational interventions ...

Do the invasive Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and the maize lepidopteran stemborers compete when sharing the same food?

Abstract: In insect communities, the outcome of intra- and inter-specific competitions for food utilisation depend primarily upon density and duration even inter-specific competitions can occur when they are not sharing the same feeding niche such as between foliar feeders and stemborers. Experimental manipulations of larval densities and the durations of common diet feeding of fall armyworm (FAW), S. frugiperda, and the African lepidopteran stemborers, Busseola fusca, Sesamia calamistis and...

Predicting the impact of climate change on the potential distribution of the invasive tomato pinworm Phthorimaea absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

Abstract: Phthorimaea absoluta (Meyrick) (=Tuta absoluta) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is the most damaging insect pest threatening the production of tomato and other solanaceous vegetables in many countries. In this study, we predicted the risk of establishment and number of generations for P. absoluta in the current and future climatic conditions under two Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5) of the years 2050 and 2070 using insect life cycle modelling (ILCYM) software. We ...

Insights in the global genetics and gut microbiome of black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens: Implications for animal feed safety control

Abstract: The utilization of the black soldier fly (BSF) Hermetia illucens L. for recycling organic waste into high-quality protein and fat biomass for animal feeds has gained momentum worldwide. However, information on the genetic diversity and environmental implications on safety of the larvae is limited. This study delineates genetic variability and unravels gut microbiome complex of wild-collected and domesticated BSF populations from six continents using mitochondrial COI gene and 16S m...

Entomological assessment of tsetse-borne trypanosome risk in the Shimba Hills human-wildlife-livestock interface, Kenya

Abstract: Shimba Hills is a wildlife area in Kenya and a major focus of tsetse-borne trypanosomes in East Africa. In Shimba Hills, tsetse-borne trypanosomes constrain animal health and smallholder livelihoods. However, epidemiological data to guide hotspot-targeted control of infections are limited. This study assessed the dynamics of tsetse-borne trypanosome risk in Shimba Hills with the objective to describe infection hotspots for targeted control. Tsetse flies (n = 696) collected in field...

Inventory reveals wide biodiversity of edible insects in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

Abstract: In response to growing food demand, edible insects are perceived as an opportunity to alleviate food insecurity. With its wide edible insects’ biodiversity, the Democratic Republic of Congo is one of Africa’s most critical entomophagous. This study aimed at giving a first insight on inventory showing diversity, perception, consumption, availability, host plants, harvesting techniques and processing techniques of edible insects in South-Kivu, DRC. It recorded twenty-three edible...

Phylogenomic and morphological reevaluation of the bee tribes Biastini, Neolarrini, and Townsendiellini (Hymenoptera: Apidae) with description of three new species of Schwarzia.

Abstract: Bees of the tribes Biastini, Neolarrini, and Townsendiellini are cleptoparasites in the subfamily Nomadinae (Hymenoptera, Apidae) and parasitize solitary bees. Understanding their phylogenetic relationships has proven difficult for many decades. Previous research yielded ambiguous results because of conflicting phylogenetic sig-nals of larval and adult morphological characters. Molecular data settled some of this disparity but our knowledge remains fragmented due to limited taxon s...


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