Biological Science Research Papers/Topics

Agronomic Characterization of Soybean and Bambara Groundnut Genotypes Grown on Different Soils of Lake Victoria Basin

Abstract/Overview Neglect and under-utilization of legumes such as soybeans and bambaragroundnuts are the reason for increased food insufficiency in the Lake Vic toria basin. Diversification of legumes into the cropping systems of LakeVictoria basin ensures protein rich diets and improved soil fertility. Thisstudy was carried out to evaluate agronomic characters of two soybean vari eties and two bambara groundnut landraces cultivated on different soils ofLake Victoria basin. Seeds of two ...

Variation in Temperature and Nutrient Source Influence the Growth of Exserohilum Turcicum Mycelia Isolated from Sorghum

Abstract/Overview Turcicum leaf blight (TLB) caused by the fungus Exserohilum turcicum is a serious threat toproduction of maize and sorghum, since it damages photosynthetic leaves. Growth and development of E.turcicum pathogen is influenced by factors such as light, temperature, dew period, plant age and inoculumsconcentration. Tharaka Nithi County in Eastern Kenya where sorghum is actively grown has heterogenous climatic and edaphic conditions. It is currently unclear if variations in t...

Inventory, reward value and diversity of Apis mellifera nectariferous and polleniferous forage in Eastern Mau forest, Kenya

Abstract/Overview The study was conducted in Eastern Mau is one of the East Mau forest is an important watershed within the Mau Forest Complex, feeding major rivers and streams that make up the hydrological systems of Lake Victoria and inland Lakes of Nakuru, Baringo and Natron to document the bee flora and their respecetive reward value to compliment the participatory forest conservation approaches incorporating the Ogieks who are predominant forest dwellers, and known for bee keeping sk...

Dietary Preference of the Rothschild’s Giraffes (Giraffa Camelopardalis Rothschildii) Translocated to Ruma National Park, Kenya

Abstract/Overview Without monitoring of animal behavior and the productivity of their environment, the success of a translocation cannot be properly ascertained, nor can important lessons be learned. This study investigated habitat utilization of the translocated Rothschild’s giraffes in Ruma National Park. Feeding giraffes were observed with an 8x40 pair of binoculars and plants eaten were collected, tagged, pressed and identified. For each plant species, “food- records” were summe...

Diagnosis and Management of Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis (Eos) Among High-Risk Neonates in Kisii Teaching and Referral Hospital and Homabay County Referral Hospital, Western Kenya

Abstract/Overview Neonatal sepsis (NS) is the third most common contributor to neonatal deaths worldwide, the majority of which occur within the first 72 hours of life (Early-onset sepsis [(EOS)]). Diagnosis of EOS is challenging due to limitations with blood volume, poor sensitivity of culture, delay in culture results, and most importantly, lack of bacterial blood culture capacity in high burden settings. Current syndromic algorithms for diagnosis of EOS lack validations and are needed ...

On local minimum and orthogonality of normal derivations in Cp-classes

Abstract/Overview The present paper gives some results on local minimum and orthogonality of normal derivations in Cp-Classes. We employ some techniques for normal derivations due to Mecheri, Hacene, Bounkhel and Anderson. Let CpCp be normal, then the linear map = attains a local minimum at x Cp if and only if z Cp such that ) Also let Cp, and let have the polar decomposition, then the map attains local minimum on Cp at T if and only if. Regarding orthogonality, let SCp and let N(S) have ...

Implication of pollen character coding and their diagnostic value in the determination of taxonomic resemblance among indigofera linn species

Abstract/Overview Whereas phenetics emphasizes the use of maximum characters as practicable, decisions on how observations are translated to characters is of importance in systematics in order to partition objects in to nonoverlapping groups.The acetolysed pollen of selected Indigofera Linn. species were viewed under Mg x100 in Leica light microscope. Pollen characteristics of the following Indigofera species deposited in Maseno University Herbarium have been studied: I.paracapitata, I.as...

Malaria vector species distribution and seasonal population dynamics across varied ecological zones in Baringo County, Kenya

Abstract/Overview Vector populations fluctuate on a seasonal basis annually. Knowledge on seasonal abundance and distribution of vector species at the local level would improve vector control programmes and contribute to malaria prevention. Despite this, information on malaria vector species distribution and seasonal fluctuations in Baringo County is scarce. This study examined distribution and seasonal abundance of malaria vector species in Baringo. The study area was stratified into fou...

In vitro antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of different Senna didymobotrya (Fresen.) H. S. Irwin & Barneby plant parts

Abstract/Overview Background: Herbal medicines are used widely for primary health care in Kenya among rural populations where modern medicines are not affordable. The flowers, roots, stems and leaves of Senna didymobotrya have both antifungal and antibacterial activity. Decoctions or infusion are used to treat skin diseases, diarrhoea, malaria, venereal diseases and stomach problems. Methods: Plants were collected from farmers' fields in western Kenya. Stem bark, root bark, leaves, flower...

Morphological, genetic and symbiotic characterization of root nodule bacteria isolated from Bambara groundnuts (Vigna subterraneaL. Verdc) from soils of Lake Victoria basin, western Kenya.

Abstract/Overview Low soil nitrogen (N) is a major constraint for sustainable crop production in smallholder farming systems in Africa. Grain legumes such as bambara groundnuts (Vigna subterraneaL. Verdc). can form N fixing symbiotic association with root nodule bacteria collectively called ‘rhizobia’; in a process that can supply sufficient N for the legume and other crops under intercrop or in rotation. There is currently insufficient information on the diversity of indigenous rhizo...

Competition in Kenyan soils between Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli strain Kim5 and R. tropici strain CIAT899 using the gusA marker gene

Abstract/Overview The contribution of appropriate inoculum strains to more efficient nitrogen fixation by legumes has been difficult to assess due to the laborious nature of the assays involved in assessing establishment of inoculum strains in the field. The use of marker genes, in particular the GUS system, changes this, making it possible to assess occupancy by the inoculum strain in large numbers of nodules on whole root systems. Here we used the GUS system to evaluate the competitive ...

Diversity of Rhizobia Nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris L. in two Kenyan soils with contrasting pHs.

Abstract/Overview Rhizobia were isolated from two Kenyan soils with pHs of 4.5 and 6.8 and characterized on the basis of their host ranges for nodulation and nitrogen fixation, colony morphologies, restriction fragment fingerprints, and hybridization with a nifH probe. The populations of rhizobia nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris in the two soils were similar in numbers and in effectiveness of N(inf2) fixation but were markedly different in composition. The population in the Naivasha soil (pH...

Vulnerability of Nyabarongo River Water Abstraction to Climate Change in Rwanda

Abstract/Overview Purpose: Climate change in Rwanda is a great challenge resulting from increased temperature and causing abnormal variability in weather variables and threatening the socio-economic welfare of human beings. Water resources have been subjected to degradation and pollution due to intensive and frequent rainfall that have negatively impact on water abstractions in their proximity. This study aimed at analyzing the vulnerability of the Nyabarongo river water abstraction to cl...

Growth and Economic Performance of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell,1822) Fed Diets Containing Black Soldier Fly Larvae Hermetia illucens Linnaeus, 1758)

Abstract/Overview Insect meals have been proposed as a potential alternative protein source for replacing fishmeal (FM), the key ingredient in aquaculture diets, yet is the most scarce and expensive. However, not much work has been done on the effects of replacing FM with black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens ) larvae meal (BSFLM) on the growth and economic performance of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings. This study investigated the effect of replacing FM with BSFLM on the ...

EFFECT OF FEEDING DIFFERENT LEVELS OF MAIZE SILAGE ON FEED INTAKE, LIVE WEIGHT GAIN, CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS, AND MEAT QUALITY OF HARAR CATTLE

Abstract: The experiment was conducted at Haramaya University Beef fattening station, to evaluate the effect of maize silage inclusion at different levels on feed intake, growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. Twelve castrated Harar oxen of average age 6 years with the initial body weight of 229±1.18 kg (mean+SE) were used for the experiment. The animals were randomly distributed to four treatments each with three replications in a completely randomized design. The d...


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