High fluoride water in Bondo-Rarieda area of Siaya County, Kenya: a hydro-geological implication on public health in the Lake Victoria basin

Abstract/Overview

Background: Only a few studies to evaluate groundwater fluoride in Eastern Africa have been undertaken outsidethe volcanic belt of the Great Eastern Africa Rift Valley. The extent and impact of water fluoride outside theseregions therefore remain unclear. The current study evaluated fluoride levels in household water sources in Bondo-Rarieda Area in the Kenyan part of the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB) and highlighted the risk posed by waterfluoride to the resident communities. The results, it was anticipated, will contribute to in-depth understanding of the fluoride problem in the region. Methods: A total of 128 water samples were collected from different water sources from the entire study area and analyzed for fluoride content using ion-selective electrodes. Results: Lake Victoria was the main water source in the area but dams and open pans (39.5%), boreholes and shallow wells (23.5%), and streams (18.5%) were the principal water sources outside walking distances from the lake. The overall mean fluoride content of the water exceeded recommended limits for drinking water. The mean water fluoride was highest in Uyoma (1.39±0.84 ppm), Nyang’oma (1.00±0.59 ppm) and Asembo (0.92±0.46 ppm) and lowest in Maranda Division (0.69±0.42 ppm). Ponds (1.41±0.82 ppm), springs (1.25±0.43 ppm), dams and open pans (0.96±0.79 ppm), and streams (0.95±0.41 ppm) had highest fluoride levels but lake and river water did not have elevated fluoride levels. Groundwater fluoride decreased with increasing distance from the lake indicating that water fluoride may have hydro-geologically been translocated into the region from geochemical sources outside the area. Conclusions: Lake Victoria was the main water source for the residents of Bondo-Rarieda Area. Majority of in-land residents however used water from dams, open pans, boreholes, shallow wells, ponds and streams, which was generally saline and fluoridated. It was estimated that 36% of children living in this area, who consume water from ground sources from the area could be at the risk of dental fluorosis.

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APA

W</div>, < (2024). High fluoride water in Bondo-Rarieda area of Siaya County, Kenya: a hydro-geological implication on public health in the Lake Victoria basin. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/high-fluoride-water-in-bondo-rarieda-area-of-siaya-county-kenya-a-hydro-geological-implication-on-public-health-in-the-lake-victoria-basin

MLA 8th

W</div>, <div>Wambu "High fluoride water in Bondo-Rarieda area of Siaya County, Kenya: a hydro-geological implication on public health in the Lake Victoria basin" Afribary. Afribary, 04 Jun. 2024, https://afribary.com/works/high-fluoride-water-in-bondo-rarieda-area-of-siaya-county-kenya-a-hydro-geological-implication-on-public-health-in-the-lake-victoria-basin. Accessed 25 Jul. 2024.

MLA7

W</div>, <div>Wambu . "High fluoride water in Bondo-Rarieda area of Siaya County, Kenya: a hydro-geological implication on public health in the Lake Victoria basin". Afribary, Afribary, 04 Jun. 2024. Web. 25 Jul. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/high-fluoride-water-in-bondo-rarieda-area-of-siaya-county-kenya-a-hydro-geological-implication-on-public-health-in-the-lake-victoria-basin >.

Chicago

W</div>, <div>Wambu . "High fluoride water in Bondo-Rarieda area of Siaya County, Kenya: a hydro-geological implication on public health in the Lake Victoria basin" Afribary (2024). Accessed July 25, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/high-fluoride-water-in-bondo-rarieda-area-of-siaya-county-kenya-a-hydro-geological-implication-on-public-health-in-the-lake-victoria-basin