Research Papers/Topics in Pediatrics

Frequency Of Relapse Among Nigerian Children With Steroid Sensitive Nephrotic Syndrome

Abstract Background: The clinical course of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) among Nigerian children has rarely been reported; this makes prognostication difficult. Objectives: The objective was to determine the frequency of relapses including frequent relapses (FR) and steroid-dependence (SD) in a cohort of Nigerian children with SSNS. A secondary objective was to identify clinical and demographic factors associated with relapse in these children. Methods: Medical records of...

A Review Of 10 Years Autopsy Of Children With Cardiovascular Disorders

SUMMARY Objectives: To review the prevalence and pattern of cardiovascular disorders in childhood autopsies in Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH). To also determine the frequency of associated extra cardiac complications and characteristics of children with cardiovascular diseases that died. Materials and Methods: The autopsy register of the department of Morbid anatomy for the years 1991 to 2000 in LUTH was retrospectively reviewed. Data extracted including age, sex, primary diag...

Cyclosporine In The Treatment Of Childhood Idiopathic Steroid Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome: A Single Centre Experience In Nigeria

Abstract Introduction: Children with steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome usually require treatment with second-line agents and calcineurin inhibitors such as cyclosporine are now recommended as initial therapy. These agents only recently become available in our environment and their impact on care is unknown. We reviewed the short-term treatment outcomes of their use in comparison with previous outcomes. Methods: Medical records of children managed for idiopathic steroid resistant nephro...

Bubble CPAP In The Management Of Respiratory Distress Syndrome In Resource Constrained Settings: The Luth Experience

Abstract Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a common health problem especially in preterm newborns. In Nigeria, prematurity accounts for about 25% of neonatal mortality and RDS have been identified as the major cause of these deaths. The major problem in RDS is immaturity of the lungs with deficiency of surfactant. Surfactant reduces surface tension in the alveoli, thereby preventing collapse of the lungs during expiration. Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) is a...

Sporadic Emergence Of Probable Cases Of Diphtheria

 AbstractBackground: Vaccine preventable diseases still account for a large proportion of childhood morbidity and mortality in children less than five of age. The decline in immunization coverage over the years has worsened this resulting in the re-emergence of hitherto controlled infections such as diphtheria.Objective: To review the presentation, management and outcome of cases of probable diphtheria seen at the children emergency centre at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital....

Intestinal Malrotation In The Older Child: A Call For Vigilance

ABSTRACT Context: Most cases of gut malrotation are diagnosed in the 1st year of life, but in minority of cases, the patient becomes symptomatic only in adolescence or adulthood. Aims: The aim of this study was to remind physicians to include intestinal malrotation in the differential diagnosis of children who present with recurrent abdominal pain, especially when it is associated with vomiting and other gastrointestinal symptoms. Settings and Design: This was an audit of the older chil...

Deletion Syndrome In Diverse Populations

ABSTRACT22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome and is underdiagnosed in diverse populations. This syndrome has a variable phenotype and affects multiple systems, making early recognition imperative. In this study, individuals from diverse populations with 22q11.2 DS were evaluated clinically and by facial analysis technology. Clinical information from 106 individuals and images from 101 were collected from individuals with 22q11.2 DS from 11 coun...

Food Allergy: Two Case Reports And Management Challenges In A Resource-Limited Setting

Background: Food allergy has been well described in white children, and cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA) still remains the most common allergy in these children. Information on the same subject in developing countries is very limited, and management of this condition remains challenging. Case presentation: We report on two cases of children with multiple food allergies. The first patient presented with chronic diarrhoea following the introduction and use of several infant formulas, whi...

Maternal Exclusive Breast-Feeding Practice In Calabar, Nigeria: Some Related Social Characteristics

ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE : to determine the social characteristic of mother who practice exclusive breast feeding in Calabar. SUBJECT AND METHODS: a prospective questionnaire based cross sectional survey of breast feeding practices among mothers of children aged 0-24 months was carried out in Calabar in April 1998. Using WHO indicators for assessing breast feeding practices the exclusive breast feeding rate was determined in mothers of children aged 0-6months. This study documents the so...

Urethral Prolapse In A Five Year Old Girl

ABSTRACTUrethral prolapse is a rare cause of vaginal bleeding in prepubertal females and occurs most commonly in black people. It is characterized by a sliding outward of the urethral mucosa around the entire urethral meatus. Because it can present with vaginal bleeding in a child, it can be mistaken for sexual abuse. We report a five year old girl with urethral prolapse that was mistaken for complications of sexual abuse. She was treated by complete excision of the urethral prolapse wi...

In Hospital Outcome Of Children Referred For Cardiac Surgery Abroad From A Developing Country

ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Cardiac surgery is the definitive intervention for structural heart diseases particularly of congenital aetiology in children. Unfortunately, most developing countries currently lack adequate capacity for pediatric cardiac surgery often necessitating referral to foreign countries with appropriate facilities and capacities. We hereby report the in-hospital outcome of Nigerian children referred from Lagos University Teaching Hospital to undergo cardiac surgery abroad. ...

Factors Influencing HIV Seroprevalence Rate Among Pregnant Women In Calabar Nigeria

ABSTRACTHuman immune deficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence among pregnant women in Calabar was studied. The aims were to establish HIV seroprevalence rate and to identify factors which influence this rate in our pregnant women. HIV seroprevalence rate of 2.7% among antenatal women in Calabar was recorded with a vertical transmission rate of 20%. Husband and wife not living together, history of induced abortion and blood transfusion significantly increase HIV seroprevalence rate among an...

Paediatric HIV Infection/AIDS In Three Of Four Children From Two Consecutive Twin Deliveries

SUMMARYVertical infection by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among two consecutive pair of twins from a well to do family is presented. While the first twin of the first pair must have been infected in-utero, the second may have been infected at parturition of through breast milk. Severe protein-energy malnutrition was the main mode of presentation. A recommendation is made for routine screening of pregnant women during ante-natal care with family planning counselling of positive...

The Influence Of Dietary Diversity On The Nutritional Status Of Children Between 6 And 23 Months Of Age In Tanzania

Abstract Background: Undernutrition poses a serious health challenge in developing countries and Tanzania has the highest undernutrition burden of Eastern and Southern Africa. Poor infant and young child feeding practices have been identified as the main causes of undernutrition. As dietary diversity is a major requirement if children are to get all essential nutrients, it can thus be used as one of the core indicators when assessing feeding practices and nutrition of children. Therefore...

Childhood Mortality In Children Emergency Centre Of The Lagos University Teaching Hospital

Abstract Background: Infant and childhood mortality has remained high in developing countries like Nigeria with only marginal reductions achieved over the past two decades despite several interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality from the common causes of death in children. It is therefore important to examine the current pattern of mortality in children and compare it with previous reports from this centre so as to determine if newer interventions are needed or if these ...


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