Research Papers/Topics in Pharmacology

Contribution of Indigenous Health Care Givers to -The Herbal Management of Febrile Illnesses in Rivers State, South-South, Nigeria

Introduction Malaria remains a major public health concern, especially in Africa, despite several years of research and billions of dollars spent on the development of drugs for the treatment of the disease. It is estimated that about 300 to 500 million cases of malaria occur globally every year, out of which 90% of the cases occur In Africa. It is also estimated that malaria is responsible for 1-2 million deaths annually in Africa (Toklohuimnnot, 2000). For over fifty years, the mai...

Phytosterols from Spondias mombin Linn with Antimycobacterial Activities

ABSTRACT The growing problems of tuberculosis have led to the search for new anti-Mtb agents from higher plants. The stem bark of Spondias mombin was evaluated for its in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv strain). Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract was carried out by Vacuum Liquid Chromatography (VLC) on Silica gel (230-400 mesh) and purification was done using HPLC and TLC. In vitro antimycobacterial susceptibility was performed by a fluor...

Studies Of The Excretion Of Aluminium By The Kidney And The Toxic Effects Of The Element On Dna

ABSTRACTTHESIS TITLE: Studies of the excretion of aluminium bythe kidney and the toxic effects of the element on DNA.CANDIDATE: Felix Salvador Emilio Monteagudo, c/oDepartment of Pharmacology, University of Cape Town, CapeTown. February, 1991.Aluminium is an element of increasing clinicalimportance. It not only has uses as a medicinal substancebut also in recent years it has been shown to be thecause of considerable toxicity, particularly in thesetting of chronic renal failure. Disea...

Evaluation Of The Immunomodulatory Activity Of Hoslundia Opposita Vahl (Lamiaceae) Leaf Extract

ABSTRACTThe immunomodulatory properties of methanol extract and fractions of Hoslundia opposita leafon Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH), primary and secondary humoral response and in vivoleucocyte mobilization were evaluated. Acute toxicity test of crude extract and phytochemistrystudy was carried out. The methanol extract (ME) at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weightproduced significant (P

Studies On The Anti-Ulcer Activities Of The Fruit Extract And Fractions Of Cucumis Metuliferus (Cucurbitaceae)

ABSTRACTThe anti-ulcer and other gastrointestinal effects of the methanol extract and fractions ofCucumis metuliferus were investigated in rats and mice. Ethyl acetate (EAFCM), butanol(BFCM) and water (WFCM) fractions obtained from the methanol extract of Cucumismetuliferus (MECM) were screened for anti-ulcer activity. The anti-ulcer effect wasinvestigated on gastric ulcers induced by absolute ethanol, hypothermic-restraint stress andindomethacin in rats. The median lethal dose (LD50)...

Studies On Anthelmintic Activity Of Tithonia Diversifolia In Mbinga District, Tanzania

ABSTRACT Gastrointestinal nematode parasitism is a global problem in both sub-tropical and tropical countries. Due to frequent administration of chemical anthelmintics the gastrointestinal nematodes have developed resistance hence giving rise to the search of alternative anthelmintics. This study was carried out to evaluate anthelmintic effects of Tithonia diversifolia in Mbinga district, Ruvuma region, Tanzania. The study specifically dealt with evaluation of the efficacy of T. diversi...

Pharmacological Evaluation And Characterization Of The Antiulcer Constituents Of Stem Bark Extract Of Bridelia Ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae)

ABSTRACTPeptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a sore in the lining of the stomach or duodenal mucosa. The searchfor an ideal antiulcer drug continues and has also been extended to medicinal plants. Brideliaferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae) is a plant used in traditional medical practice in South WestNigeria. This study was aimed at evaluating the antiulcer activity and mechanisms of the extractof the stem bark and to isolate the bioactive constituents responsible for the antiulcer activity.Metha...

Effects Of Heavy Metals On The Air Pollution Tolerance Indices ( Apti ) Of Five Medicinal Plants Growing Within Quarry Site In Ishi-Agu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT Effects of heavy metals on the Air Pollution Tolerance Indices (APTI) of five medicinal plants growing within quarry site in Ishi-Agu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria were studied. Following laboratory analysis of the leaves of the plants for metal load and four biochemical parameters of APTI computation. The metal load was determined by the Atomic Absorption spectrophotometric method, while the ascorbic acid was determined by the titremetric method, leaf extract pH by the electro-chemi...

Hepatoxicity And Hematological Effects Of Combination First Line Antituberculosis Drugs In Healthy Sprague-Dawley Albino Rats

ABSTRACTThe commonly used antituberculosis (anti-TB) drugs, pyrazinamide (PZA), isoniazid (INH), ethambutol (EMB), and rifampicin (RMP) were administered to albino rats for the purpose of investigating the toxic consequences of combination therapies on the hematological and hepatic systems. The drugs were evaluated by simulating the normal clinical dosage. A 24-week oral administration studies of standard therapy with anti-TB drugs in albino rats without disease were carried out. The do...

Genotoxic Investigation Of Some Environmental Pollutants And Therapeutic Agents: Roles Of Antioxidants On The Mutagenicity And Toxicity Of Rifampicin

ABSTRACTThe data emerging from some of the cancer registries in sub-Saharan Africa indicate that the burden of cancer is increasing rapidly. Life style, environmental, dietary and chemical factors have all been suspected to play significant roles in the occurrence of malignancies. Rifampicin which is a first line antituberculous agent has been identified as a class three mutagen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Genotoxic investigation of both environmental poll...

Evaluation Of The Pharmacological And Toxicological Actions Of Byrsocapus Coccineus Schum And Thonn (Connaraceae)

ABSTRACT The research investigated the state of maintenance management of public hospital buildings in South-west, Nigeria, and in the process, identified factors militating against their effective contribution to health care delivery. A total of 552 questionnaires comprising 206 for maintenance staff and 346 for users of public hospital buildings were collected and used for study. The survey covered 46 public hospitals representing 40% of the total number of existing public hospital...

Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of Aqueous Leaf Extract Of Brassica Oleraceae Linn Var.Dc (Brassicaceae)

ABSTRACT The present study explored the anti-inflammatory potential of aqueous leaf extract of Brassica oleraceae in rodents, using standard laboratory models. Brassica oleraceae at doses of 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg were administered orally in carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema, xylene induced ear edema in mice, and formalin-induced rat hind paw edema (sub-acute 7 days), using indomethacin (10 mg/kg), dexamethasone / mg/kg and acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin, 100 mg/kg) respectively a...

Efficacy Studies Of Dihydroartemisinin Plus Mefloquine Combination In Children With Uncomplicated Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria In Lagos State, Nigeria

ABSTRACTThis study evaluated the efficacy of dihydroartemisinin (DHA), mefloquine (MQ) chloroquine (CQ) and combination of DHA and MQ in children for the treatment of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria, in Lagos. The toxic and histopathologic effect of DHA, MQ and  CQ using animal model (mice) was also assessed. Finally, the efficacy of DHA, MQ, CQ, combination of DHA plus MQ and DHA plus CQ on P. berghei in mice was evaluated.Nine hundred and twenty patients aged between 3-13 y...

Pharmacological and Toxicological Activities of the Mthanolic Root Extract of Cnestis Feruginea Vahl Ex De Candolle

ABSTRACTHerbal medicines are an important part of the culture and traditions of African people. Today,most of the population in urban Nigeria, as well as rural communities, rely on herbal medicines fortheir health care needs. Epidemiological data suggest that lower incidences of certain chronicdiseases such as atherosclerosis, arthritis, diabetes, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)mediated by the human immunovirus, asthma, neoplasia, neurodegenerative and cardiovasculardiseases are as...


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