Research Papers/Topics in Chemistry

Some Non-Cellulosic S-D-Glycans From Plant Sources

AbstractThe structures of some non-cellulosic S-Q-Glycans from threeplant sources have been investigated and each was foundto be characterised bylinked D-pyranosyla main chain consisting of S-(1-44)-sugars. The polysaccharides were,however, different in structural features in a mannerapparently related to their respective locations within theorgans of the plants concerned.The polysaccharides were isolated and purified usingstandard fractionation methods including chromatographictechniq...

Chemical Composition And Anti-Microbial Activity Of Essential Oils Of The Plants: Tarchonanthus Camphoratus, Leonotis Nepetifolia And Satureja Biflora

ABSTRACTIn sub-Saharan Africa, the high infant mortality is mainly due to diarrhoea, respiratoryinfections, typhoid and measles. The control of these diseases relies heavily on the use ofsynthetic drugs. However, due to the high cost of these drugs and increased bacterialresistance to available anti-biotics, their use is increasingly becoming unpopular. Plant–derived herbal medicines are feasible alternatives that can be used to reduce incidence ofthese diseases. Since they are readily...

Development Of An Improved Isocratic Hplc Method For The Determination Of Gallic Acid, Caffeine And Catechins In Tea

ABSTRACTPolyphenols are the primary compounds responsible for the health benefits of tea,including its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Caffeine contributes to tea’sstimulant properties, while gallic acid and polyphenols contributes to its antioxidantproperties. Most of the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) methods used forthe determination of tea biochemicals include gradient elution systems which involveexpensive instrumentation. The aim of this study was to...

Determination Of Karate And Pyagro Residue Levels In Fresh, Black And Brewed Tea From Tea Farms In Kericho

ABSTRACTKarate and Pyagro are insecticides currently registered and used in Kenya for control of several insect and mite pests in diverse crops. They are emulsifiable concentrate formulations of the active ingredients lambda-cyhalothrin (Karate) and Pyrethrins (Pyagro). This study established residue levels for lambda-cyhalothrin and Pyrethrins in fresh tea leaves, black tea and brewed tea. The study evaluated the effect of tea preparation procedures on pesticide residue levels in tea and mon...

Particulate Emissions From Selected Combustion Sources And Their Pathological Impacts On The Lung Tissues Of Male Albino Mice

ABSTRACTParticulate emissions and organic volatiles produced by incomplete combustion processes have attracted the attention of many environmental experts. Consequently, increasing concern has been directed towards the study of human health problems caused by carcinogenic and mutagenic soot components such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polyenes from various combustion systems. Soot from many combustion systems are well-known precursors for numerous toxicological impacts in th...

Purification And Chemical Characterisation Of Larvicidal Compound (S) Of Extracts Prepared From Submerged Cultures Of Basidiomycetes Against Aedes Aegypti

ABSTRACTThe diseases transmitted by mosquito continue to be rampant and in most case fatalespecially in the developing countries. Mosquito is the main vector for malaria. Malaria is ascourge and according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) estimations, over 40% of theworld population remain exposed to malaria. In Kenya, about 25,000 children die of malariaeach year; although the actual number of deaths is unknown since most of them occur at home.Since prevention is better than cure, ...

Investigation Of Antioxidant Compounds From The Berries Of Teclea Simplicifolia (Engl.) I. Verd. And Ziziphus Mucronata Willd

ABSTRACTLife threatening diseases like, cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases have been linked to oxidative stress in the human body. Oxidative stress results from the uncontrolled generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the body. Naturally, the normal body regulates ROS through in situ production of antioxidants. However, the human body is not capable of quenching ROS exceeding a certain level and this can result in oxidative stress. Hence the need of exogeno...

Purification And Structure Elucidation Of Biologically Active Compounds Produced By A Trametes Spp (Jo5066) In Biotechnological Cultures Against Aedes Aegepti And Selected Microorganisms

Fungi, especially higher ones, have received a lot of attention in the recent decades due to the advances of biotechnological techniques. This is because secondary metabolism in fungal biotechnological cultures is manipulable and produces an array of compounds with diverse as well as novel chemical and biological properties. The activities can be taped into to address the myriad problems afflicting local communities in Kenya especially in agrochemical and medical sect...

Isolation And Characterization Of Antimicrobial Compounds From Berries Of Harrisonia Abyssinica (Simaroubaceae)..

ABSTRACTPlants are a potential source of antimicrobial compounds. In this study, a plantfrom the family Simaroubaceae, Harrisonia abyssinica, traditionally used to treat anumber of diseases was used. Research has been carried out on its stem bark, root barkand leaves and a number of chemical constituents have been isolated but no research hasbeen carried out on its berries. Therefore the berries of this plant were chosen in order toinvestigate for antimicrobial compounds. The berries of...

Antiplasmodial And Toxicity Activities And Characterization Of Chemical Compounds Extracted From Selected Medicinal Plants In Uganda

Malaria caused by Plasmodium parasite is at the moment the one of the highest killer disease in the tropics. In developing countries, where malaria is one of the most prevalent diseases, some people still rely on traditional medicine for the treatment of this disease. In the present study an ethnobotanical survey was conducted to document antimalarial medicinal plants. In vitro antiplasmodial and in vivo toxicity activities were carried out on crude root extracts and ...

Antiplasmodial And Toxicity Activities And Characterization Of Chemical Compounds Extracted From Selected Medicinal Plants In Uganda

ABSTRACTMalaria caused by Plasmodium parasite is at the moment the one of the highest killer disease in the tropics. In developing countries, where malaria is one of the most prevalent diseases, some people still rely on traditional medicine for the treatment of this disease. In the present study an ethnobotanical survey was conducted to document antimalarial medicinal plants. In vitro antiplasmodial and in vivo toxicity activities were carried out on crude root extracts and on the isolated p...

Isolation And Characterization Of Antibacterial Secondary Metabolites From Polyscias Fulva And Its Endophytic Fungi

Infectious diseases remain to be a global health burden due to the development of antibiotic resistance by pathogenic microorganisms. Antibiotic resistance has led to increased number of deaths among children and adults. Medicinal plants have been used over the years in the treatment and remedy of various infections affecting human beings. The use of secondary metabolites from medicinal plants and fungal endophytes can be an alternative to disease management without t...

Purification And Structural Elucidation Of Mosquito Larvicidal Compound(S) From Cultures Of An Ascomycete Species Jo5035 Against Aedes Aegypti

Mosquito transmitted diseases such as yellow fever, elephantiasis, dengue and malaria are some of the most deadly vector-borne diseases, affecting millions of people mainly in the tropics. In spite of major efforts undertaken for control of the diseases, through drug treatment and vector control, an increase in mosquito borne disease incidences has been witnessed in the last decades. Africa suffers most from mosquito borne diseases since mosquito vectors are distribut...


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