Research Papers/Topics in Chemistry

Assessment of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Food Crops from Pece Wet Land in Gulu Township, Northern Uganda

ABSTRACT The present study is aimed at assessing the concentrations of heavy metals in food crops from pece wet land Gulu town ship. The study investigated heavy metals which include Copper, Zinc, Lead, and Cadmium in the soil and in selected crops which were banana fruit, sugar cane, coco yam and green vegetables (Amaranthus dubius). Metals are essential for maintaining human health throughout life however, at high concentrations they become poisonous. In Gulu town ship, waste disposal and ...

Chemical Characterization of Some Flavonoids from Trianthema prot ulacstrum and phoenix dactylefrera and Their Biological Activity

Abstract  In the present work, the stems of Trianthema portulacastrum and Phoenix d actylefera pollens were extracted with 95% ethanol at ambient temperature. Qualitative tests on alcoholic extract of Trianthema portulacastrum stems re vealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroids, carb ohydrates and glycosides. The crude extracts of Trianthema portulacastrum and Phoenix daclylefera w ere initially purified by column chromatography. Further purification was ac com...

Toxicological Studies on Organic Manures Derived from Municipal Solid Waste in Makindye, Rubaga and Kawempe Divisions of Kampala, Uganda

ABSTRACT The study was carried out to estimate the levels of contamination and marketability of organic compost manures, derived from Kampala municipal solid wastes (MSW), sold along roads in the various suburbs of Kampala. The organic composts were sampled from five locations: Kawempe (KWP); Bwaise (BWS); Kitebi (KTB); Wankulukuku (WKK) and Ggaba-Kansanga (GGK~. The overall quality of the compost manures was determined by investigating selected physicochemical, trace metals and fertilizing p...

Assessment Of Heavy Metal Pollution in Water, Soil and Rice Grown Around River Yobe, Nigeria

ABSTRACT The study was carried out to determine the levels of pollution, by selected metals. in water, soil and rice grown around River Yobe, Nigeria. The samples were collected from four different locations and were analyzed for physicochernical parameters, heavy metals and pollution indices. The pH of water and soil samples were found to be within the range of 6.47 ± 0.05 — 6.85 ± 0.13 and 6.00 — 7.70 respectively. The EC, Alkalinity, chloride, hardness, TDS and turbidity of the water...

Studies On Biogas and Bio Liquid Production by Fungal Degradation of Banana (Musa Sapientum) Leaves

Abstract Anaerobic biodegradation of banana leaves by cellulolytic fungus (yeast) was conducted at optimum operational conditions of concentration, temperature and pH for biogas and bio liquid production. Proximate analysis of both the fermented and unfermented substrates was carried out. Effects of nutritive additives on biogas and bio liquid production were investigated. The bio liquid generated was extracted by soxhlet extraction and, its components were separated into maltenes (soluble c...

Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric Determination of' Trace, Metal Concentrations in Raw and Finished Drinking Water from Lower Usuma Dam in The F.C.T.

ABSTRACT The concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in vegetables grown in Kaduna metropolis were determined. The nitric acid -per chloric acid mixture was used in the digestion procedure and a precision of 4.2%, 3.8%, 2.4%, 5.3%, and 5.7% was obtained for Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cu respectively. Good recoveries between 88-96% were obtained for the metals studied. The concentrations of metals in the vegetables varied from 40-1 OOµg/g for Fe, 21.3-51.3µg/g Zn, 9.0-28. Oµg/g Cu, 0.7-2.6µg/g Pb...

Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric Determination of Trace Metals in the Soils of Abuja Municipality Nigeria

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1   General Pollution affects more than our water and air; soils also are seriously polluted. It is easy to forget that the soil is more than just a mass of inert matter. In its own way, the soil is a living organism. (I) Soil is a crucial component of the rural and urban environments, and in both cases, land management is the key to soil quality. Pesticides are synthetic organic or inorganic chemicals used to control weeds in fields and lawns, and unwanted or ha...

An Urban Soil Study: Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric Determination of Some Heavy Metals in Selected Towns in Niger State, Nigeria

ABSTRACT Soil samples were collected from cultivated farmlands, roadside topsoil, industrial sites, and local brass industrial site located in three major cities (Minna, Bida and Suleja) of Niger State. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 3050 was followed to digest heavy metals from the samples, and subsequently, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni were detem1ined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) technique. Generally, the mean concentrations .Vere 14±...

Assessment of The Water and Sediment Quality of Some Lagoons Within the Greater Accra Region

ABSTRACT The Ghanaian ecosystem plays host to various lagoons which serve different purposes. The most important of them is being home for different types of fish species. Examples are Sarotherodon melanotheron (Cichlidae) which is popularly called blackchin tilapia and Tilapia guineensis (Bleeker) also known as redchin tilapia. Quality assessment was done to ascertain the level of pollution in water and sediment samples from Sakumo, Chemu and Kpeshie lagoons. Physicochemical parameters (pH,...

Pozzolana Cement Obtained By Calcining Raw Clays/Rice Husks Mixtures

The aim of the study was to investigate thermal activation of clays from selected regions of Mwea using rice husks (RH), as the only source of energy, to produce low cost pozzolanalime cement. The clays were sampled from Gikiiro and Ugweri regions and coded 2060 and 2062 respectively. The clays were calcined at temperatures between 500 and 800 oC for one and two hours. Further, the raw clays were blended with rice husks at different ratios and fired in a fixed bed kiln (FBK). The resultant as...

Variation Of Cyanide Levels In Processed Sweet Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) Leaves Grown In Busia And Kilifi Counties, Kenya

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is the third most important food source around the world especially in sub - Sahara Africa. It is preferred due to its agronomical attribute such as ability to grow in poor soils and drought resistance. The consumption of its tubers and leaves has dual antagonistic contribution to mankind. On one hand, this perennial tropical crop contains carbohydrates, vitamins, calcium and iron which are of nutritional benefit while on the other hand, they contain cyanoge...

Physico-Chemical Characterization Of Raw Clays Used In Pottery At Ilesi In Kakamega County - Kenya

Ilesi market in Kakamega County has been known for pottery for more than five decades in spite of the fact that the clays used have not been scientifically characterized. The potters register significant losses in their production due to swelling during molding, breakages during drying and firing. The objective of this study was to characterize the clays with a view to determining their suitability for pottery. Clay soils from Ilesi deposits in Kakamega County have been physically and chemica...

Synthesis, Characterization And Screening Of Selected Amine Complexes Of The 5-C5h5)(Co)(Pph3)Fe] For Organometallic Moiety [(Η Antibacterial Activity

The emergence of bacterial resistance to existing antibiotics and other drugs is a worldwide problem. New classes of antimicrobial compounds with complete new mode of action are therefore urgently needed to control the rise of the multidrug resistant pathogens. The objective of this study was to prepare, and characterize halfsandwich organometallic compounds of iron containing amine ligands with similar backbones as drug molecules used in the treatment of TB and to test their biological activ...

Computational Chemistry Studies Of [1,7] Sigmatropic Hydrogen Shift In Z,Z-1,3,5-heptatriene Systems And Esterification Reactions

Density functional theory has been used to study mechanisms of the reactions involving [1,7]-sigmatropic hydrogen shift in Z,Z-1,3,5-heptatriene systems, esterification of acetyl chloride with methanol and acid-catalyzed esterification of carboxylic acids with methanol.  The calculations employed the B3LYP functional, with 6-31+G(d) basis sets. Mechanism routes were computed, with complete optimization of all intermediates and transition states.  The effect of electron-donating and electron...

An Alternative Route For Manufacture Of Diammonium Phosphate

The present study was undertaken with the aim of producing Diammonium Phosphate (DAP) using air as a source of nitrogen and bones a source of phosphoric acid. Oxygen was removed from air by passing air over heated copper granules in the temperature range of 300oC – 500oC. Copper granules were heated using charcoal packed in a ceramic charcoal stove. The nitrogen was reacted with lithium to form lithium nitride which was hydrolysed to produce ammonia. The phosphoric acid extracted by boiling...


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