Research Papers/Topics in Health Molecular Biology

Understanding The Implementation Of Direct Health Facility Financing And Its Effect On Health System Performance In Tanzania: A Non-Controlled Before And After Mixed Method Study Protocol

Abstract Background: Globally, good health system performance has resulted from continuous reform, including adaptation of Decentralisation by Devolution policies, for example, the Direct Health Facility Financing (DHFF). Generally, the role of decentralisation in the health sector is to improve efficiency, to foster innovations and to improve quality, patient experience and accountability. However, such improvements have not been well realised in most low- and middle-income countries, w...

Molecular Characterization Of Wuchereria Bancrofti In Mosquitoes Of Pangani District, North Eastern Tanzania

ABSTRACT Wuchereria bancrofti is the most widely distributed of the three nematodes known to cause lymphatic filariasis, the other two being Brugia malayi and B. timori. The present study was carried out to investigate strains of W. bancrofti in mosquito vectors responsible for lymphatic filariasis transmission in Pangani district, north-eastern Tanzania. In addition, the vector abundance and vector infection rates were investigated. The presence of W. bancrofti in mosquitoes was de...

Mosquito Diversity And Virus Infection In Kilombero Valley In South-Eastern Tanzania

ABSTRACT Mosquito-borne viruses are an important cause of human and domestic diseases worldwide. As crucially important emerging pathogens, they have caused multiple, notable and unnoticed epidemics of human disease over recent decades. All mosquitoborne viruses circulate within sylvatic cycles among wildlife and forest mosquitoes and may cause diseases in rural and urban populations after spillover transmission to human and domestic animals. The aim of this study was to determine mosqui...

Influenza Virus Infections Among Outpatients Seeking Health Care At Selected Hospitals In Morogoro, Mbeya And Zanzibar, Tanzania

ABSTRACT Respiratory infections cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide and are the second leading causes of death in Tanzania. Several studies involving national sentinel surveillance for influenza and epidemiology of influenza have been conducted in Tanzania. However, there is a dearth in information on the aetiology of respiratory diseases. This study screened for influenza viruses in subject with influenza-like illnesses in selected areas of Tanzania. A total of 735 ...

Responses Of Crossbred Calves To Theileria Parva Infection Following Targeted Stimulation With Toll-Like Receptor 7 (Tlr7) Agonist

ABSTRACT Control of East Coast fever (ECF) depends on the use of acaricides against ticks, chemotherapy and vaccination. ECF vaccination is based on an infection and treatment method (ITM), which induces life-long immunity if cattle are exposed to mild tick infestation. However, ECF vaccination has several limitations, such as high cost of simultaneously used antibiotics. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether Toll-like receptor 7(TLR7) agonist could effectively in...

Molecular Characterisation And Assessment Of Epidemiological Risk Factors Of African Swine Fever Virus In Iringa Region, Tanzania

ABSTRACT A cross sectional study was carried out in Iringa Region involving two Districts of Kilolo and Iringa Municipal to determine the epidemiological risk factors of the African swine fever (ASF) outbreak and genotyping the circulating African swine fever virus (ASFV) during a hemorrhagic disease outbreak in 2012 in Iringa. A structured questionnaire was used to collect epidemiological risk factors from pig keepers. Eighty households that kept pigs and that experienced the disease i...

Detection And Genetic Characterisation Of Dengue Virus Among Patients In Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania During The 2013-2014 Outbreak

ABSTRACT The present study was carried out to confirm and genetically characterize dengue virus (DENV) present in sera collected from patients with dengue fever during the 2013 and 2014 dengue outbreaks in Tanzania. Sera were collected from patients who met the clinical case definition for dengue fever. Dengue fever was diagnosed in patients included in this study by detection of IgM and IgG DENV antibodies using a combination of a rapid test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA...

Mosquito Diversity And Febrile Illness In Karagwe And Kyerwa Districts, North Western Tanzania

ABSTRACT Mosquito-borne viruses cause emerging and re-emerging infections affecting humans and animals. These diseases present themselves mainly with fever. The present study aimed at determining socio-demographic and clinical characteristics among febrile patients, and detection of selected mosquito-borne viruses circulating in Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Using a hospital-based cross-sectional descriptive study design, in total 400 febrile patients were recruited after consenting...

Molecular Characterization Of African Swine Fever Virus In Selected Areas Of Northern And Southern Tanzania During 2014 Outbreaks

ABSTRACT African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus of the Asfarviridae family that causes African swine fever (ASF), a highly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs. African swine fever presents a serious threat to the food security and livelihoods of pig-keeping farmers. The aim of this study was to diagnose and genotype ASFV in domestic pigs following reports of ASF outbreaks in northern and southern Tanzania during 2014. Fifteen tissue s...

Molecular Diagnosis And Characterisation Of ORF Virus In Symptomatic Goats In Coast And Dar Es Salaam Regions, Tanzania

ABSTRACT Orf virus (ORFV) is a member of the parapoxvirus genus that causes orf, a zoonotic and epitheliotropic highly contagious disease mainly affecting sheep, goats, wild ruminants and humans. In the present study, an outbreak of a disease in goats with clinical signs suggestive of orf in 11 flocks with a total of 259 goats was investigated between May and June 2015. Eight villages in districts of Bagamoyo (2), Ilala (1), Kinondoni (1) and Kisarawe (4) in Coast and Dar es Salaam regi...

Molecular Epidemiology And Antimicrobial Susceptibility Of Thermophilic Campylobacters In Broiler Production In Morogoro Municipal, Tanzania

ABSTRACT Since the discovered of Campylobacter in 1913, is known to cause diseases in human. Investigations were done in broiler poultry by culture method, biochemical molecular technique followed by antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter sp in Morogoro Municipal, Tanzania. The objectives of the study were to establish prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter by molecular and biochemical approach followed by antimicrobial susceptibility at each stage of broiler produ...

Determination Of The Level Of Expression Of Oscipk15 Salt Responsive Gene In Selected Tanzanian Rice Landraces

ABSTRACT This was an experiment to determine the presence and level of expression of OsCIPK15 salt responsive gene in Tanzanian rice breeders’ lines. Abiotic stress is one of the factors affecting rice cultivation in Tanzania. The calcineurin B- like protein interacting protein kinases (OsCIPKs) responsive genes have been observed to express in abiotic stress. The calcineurin B- like protein interacting protein kinases-15 (OsCIPK15) salt responsive gene, which is usually a silent gene...

Screening For Foot And Mouth Disease Virus In Buffaloes And Cattle In Selected Livestock-Wildlife Interface Areas Of Tanzania

ABSTRACT Rapid and accurate diagnosis is paramount in understanding the infection status of foot and-mouth disease (FMD) virus (FMDV) in animals. In this study, the singleplex real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assay employing the Callahan 3DF-2, 3DF-R primers and Callahan 3DP-1 probe were used in screening for FMDV genome on esophageal– pharyngeal (OP) fluids. The OP samples were collected from cattle and African buffaloes in livestock-wildlife interface areas of Mikumi, Mkomazi and Ruaha Na...

Detection And Characterization Of Mosquito-Borne Viruses Circulating In Mosquitoes Of Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania

ABSTRACT Mosquito-borne viruses primarily infect animals and humans causing significant public and veterinary health threat. Transmitted by hematophagous mosquitoes, dengue virus and Rift Valley fever virus are the most common outbreaks that occurred in parts of Tanzania especially in malaria endemic areas. Several studies reported the presence of the viruses in circulation in animals and humans. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the diversity of mosquito-borne virus vectors a...

Seroprevalence And Molecular Detection Of Chikungunya Virus Among Febrile Outpatients Seeking Health Care In Mzuzu City, Malawi

ABSTRACT Chikungunya is a viral disease caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) that is transmitted to humans by infected Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Chikungunya infection among febrile patients seeking healthcare in Mzuzu City, Malawi. Blood samples were collected during 2019 from outpatients attending Mzuzu Central Hospital who presented with fever but who were malaria and sepsis negative. Sera from outpat...