Research Papers/Topics in Material Science

SOCIAL, LEGAL, ETHICAL, HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF NANOTECHNOLOGY

ABSTRACT This  term  paper contributions nanotechnology and dives  into  the  world  of  nanotechnology  and  its and  possibilities  it  can  offer  to  the  society The and  nanomaterials immense impact  of extends  from  its  medical,  ethical,  mental,  legal environmental  applications,  to  fields  such  as  engineering,  biology,&nbs...

The Effect Of Angular Stress Performance On The Performance Of A Nickel Electroplated Steel Substrate In A Corrosive Environments

Investigation of the low carbon steel bends into different angles with dimension 50 mm X 20 mm and then plated in Nickel bath at 3V for 25 minutes subjected to NaCl and H2SO4 corrosive environment.This research investigated the corrosion resistance of nickel- plated and un-plated low carbon steeland in a corrosive environment of H2SO4 and NaCl solutions. Weight loss method was used forestimation the corrosion rate in the current study. Low carbon steel sample was nickel electroplated at&...

LABORATORY REPORT ON THE DETERMINATION OF THE MOISTURE AND CLAY CONTENT OF GREEN SAND

The quality of castings in a green sand mould is influenced significantly by its properties, such as green compression strength, permeability, mould hardness, and others, which depend on input parameters. The relationships of these properties with the input parameters, like sand grain size and shape, binder, water, clay, etc. are complex in nature. The goal of this paper is to determine the green sand mould compressive strength in case of input parameters. A good moulding sand ...

Analysis and Mechanical Performance of Stone Dust Reinforced Al (6063)

AbstractThis research technically aims at utilizing stone dust as reinforcement to check the mechanical properties of Al(6063) with different weight ratio of the reinforcement. The alloy consisting of 0, 2, 6 and 10 wt% of the reinforcements were produced using double stir casting method. Evaluation of the microstructure, percentage porosity check, measurement of density and mechanical properties of the composites produced were used to check the performance levels of the composite produced. T...

Evaluation of room temperature Tribocorrosion behaviour of Al-4.5Cu/SiC Particulate Composite in Natural Sea Water

Room  temperature  tribocorrosion behaviour  of  Al-4.5%Cu/SiC particulate composite  was  evaluated against  stainless  steel  ball  in natural  sea  water.  Ab-initio,  the          Al-4.5%Cu  was  reinforced  with  5,10,15  and  20  %  SiC  reinforcements  to  produce  the Al-4.5%Cu/SiC  particulate  composite  by  st...

Dependence of open circuit voltage in protocrystalline Si:H solar cells on carrier recombination in p/i interface and bulk regions

Contribution of carrier recombination from the p/i interface regions and the bulk to the dark current–voltage (JD–V) and short-circuit current–open-circuit voltage (Jsc–Voc) characteristics of hydrogenated amorphous-silicon (a-Si:H) p–i–n and n–i–p solar cells have been separated, identified, and quantified. Results are presented and discussed here which show that a maximum 1 sun Voc for a given bulk material can be validly extrapolated from bulk dominated Jsc–Voc characteri...

Quantitative Correlation of High Quality a-Si:H p-i-n Solar Cell Characteristics with Properties of the Bulk and p/i Interface Region

Studies have been carried out on high quality hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) p-i-n solar cells with protocrystalline i-layers to establish the nature of p/i interfaces and to quantify their contributions to various solar cell characteristics. The p-a-SiC:H,B/i-a-Si:H/n-μcSi:H,P cell structures used had the a-Si:H i-layers deposited from hydrogen diluted silane with R≡[H2 ]/[SiH4]=10. The high quality p/i interface regions obtained with R=10, indicated by the high and stable open c...

The Role of Phase Transitions in Protocrystalline Si:H on the Performance their of Solar Cells

A systematic study has been carried out to quantify the effect of microcrystallite nucleation in the intrinsic layer of protocrystalline Si:H p-i-n solar cells prepared by rf plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry (RTSE) results that have previously identified the transitions from amorphous to microcrystalline phase were confirmed with atomic force microscopy (AFM) images. The effects of the phase transitions in the bulk intrinsic layer, as wel...

Evolution of the Mobility Gap with Thickness in Hydrogen-Diluted Intrinsic Si:H Materials in the Phase Transition Region and Its Effect on p-i-n Solar Cell Characteristics

Insights into the growth processes and evolution of microstructure in intrinsic hydrogenated silicon (Si:H) films obtained from real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry (RTSE) are extended to the characterization of the optoelectronic properties of the corresponding solar cells. To assess the effects of transition regions from the amorphous to mixed microcrystalline phases, cell structures with and without such regions at different depths in the i-layer from the p-contact have been investigated. ...

Progress in Amorphous Silicon Based Solar Cell Technology

As the negative environmental effects of the current use of non-renewable energy sources have become apparent, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cell technology has advanced to provide a means of powering a future sustainable society. Over the last 25 years, a-Si:H solar cell technology has matured to a stage where there is currently a production of 30 MWpeak/year; and this production capacity continues to increase. The progress is due to the continuous advances made in new materi...

Stable a-Si: H-Based Multijunction Solar Cells with Guidance from Real-Time Optics

Phase diagrams that characterize plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of Si thin films at low substrate temperature (200 C) have been established using real time spectroscopic ellipsometry as a probe of thin film microstructural evolution and optical properties. These deposition phase diagrams describe the regimes over which predominantly amorphous and microcrystalline Si phases are obtained as a function of the accumulated film thickness and the hydrogen-to-silane gas flow ratio R=[H2]/...

Analytical model for the optical functions of amorphous semiconductors from the near-infrared to ultraviolet: Applications in thin film photovoltaics

We have developed a Kramers–Kronig consistent analytical expression to fit the measured optical functions of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) based alloys, i.e., the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function (ϵ1,ϵ2) (or the index of refraction n and absorption coefficient α) versus photon energy E for the alloys. The alloys of interest include amorphous silicon–germanium (a-Si1−xGex:H) and silicon–carbon (a-Si1−xCx:H), with band gaps ranging continuously from ∼...

Thickness Evolution of the Microstructural and Optical Properties of Si:H Films in the Amorphous-to-Microcrystalline Phase Transition Region

The ability to characterize the phase of the intrinsic (i) layers incorporated into amorphous silicon [a-Si:H] and microcrystalline silicon [μc-Si:H] thin film solar cells is critically important for cell optimization. In this research, a new method has been developed to extract the thickness evolution of the μc-Si:H volume fraction in mixed phase amorphous + microcrystalline silicon [(a+μc)-Si:H] i-layers. This method is based on real time spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements performed...

Mobility gap profiles in Si: H intrinsic layers prepared by H2-dilution of SiH4: effects on the performance of p–i–n solar cells

Insights into the growth processes and microstructural evolution for intrinsic (i) hydrogenated silicon (Si: H) films obtained from real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry (RTSE) are extended to the characterization of the optoelectronic properties of the corresponding solar cells. Numerical modeling of the J–V characteristics and their temperature dependences support the RTSE results and provide new information about the optoelectronic properties of the i-layer materials.

Intrinsic and light induced gap states in aSi:H materials and solar cells—effects of microstructure

Thin Solid Films, Jan 1, 2004The effects of microstructure on the gap states of hydrogen diluted and undiluted hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film materials and their solar cells have been investigated. In characterizing the films the commonly used methodology of relating just the magnitudes of photocurrents and subgap absorption, α(E), was expanded to take into account states other than those due to dangling bond defects. The electron mobility-lifetime products were characteri...

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