Nephrotoxicity of Ethanol Extract of Xylopia aethiopica

Augustine Airaodion 16 PAGES (5500 WORDS) Article
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  ABSTRACT  Background: The  use  of  Xylopia  aethiopica  fruit  in  folklore  medicine  is  on  the  increase  without regard to its toxicity. Aim: This study was aimed at examining its toxicity on the kidney of Wistar rats. Methodology:  The  fruits  of  Xylopia  aethiopica  were  air-dried  and  extracted  using  Soxhlet apparatus  and  ethanol  as  solvent.  The  median  lethal  dose  (LD50)  of  the  extract  was  determined using standard method. Thirty Wistar rats were divided into five groups of six rats each. Animals in groups A, B, C, and D were administered 129.62, 259.23, 388.85 and 518.46 mg/kg body weight of X.  aethiopica  fruit  extract  respectively,  while  those  in  group  E  received  normal  feeds  and  water only.  The  administration  was  done  once  daily  for  28  days  via  oral  route.  Renal  indices  were determined using standard methods. Results:  Elevation  in  creatinine  and  urea  levels was  observed  when  experimental  animals  were compared  with  those  in  control  group.  This  elevation  was  insignificant  at  a  low  dose  of  129.62 mg/kg  but  significant  (P<0.05)  at  higher  doses  of  259.23,  388.85  and  518.46  mg/kg  when compared  to  those  in  control  group.  Administration  of  Xylopia  aethiopica  fruit  increased  total bilirubin concentration when compared with those in control animals. The increase was significant (P<0.05) when animals treated with 259.23 and 518.46 mg/kg extract were respectively compared with those in the control group. No significant difference was observed in the levels of conjugated bilirubin and bicarbonate. A significant increase was observed in the level of unconjugated bilirubin (except  the  group  treated  with 388.85  mg/kg) when  compared  with those  in  the  control  group.  A significant  (P<0.05)  increase  was  observed  in  the  concentration  of  sodium  following  the administration of Xylopia aethiopica fruit  at all doses  when compared with those in  control group. Similarly, a significant  increase  was observed in  the level of  potassium (except  the group treated with 129.62 mg/kg) when compared with those in control group. Conclusion:  The  result  of  this  study  revealed  that  ethanol  extract  of  Xylopia  aethiopica  fruit  is nephrotoxic  especially  at  high  dosage.  Therefore,  its  use  in  folklore  medicine  should  be discouraged. 

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Augustine, A (2021). Nephrotoxicity of Ethanol Extract of Xylopia aethiopica. Retrieved January 24, 2021, from

MLA 8th

Airaodion, Augustine. "Nephrotoxicity of Ethanol Extract of Xylopia aethiopica", 13 Jan. 2021, . Accessed 24 Jan. 2021.


Airaodion, Augustine. "Nephrotoxicity of Ethanol Extract of Xylopia aethiopica".,, 13 Jan. 2021. Web. 24 Jan. 2021. < >.


Airaodion, Augustine. "Nephrotoxicity of Ethanol Extract of Xylopia aethiopica" (2021). Accessed January 24, 2021.