PRELIMINARY DETERMINATION OF THE ACTIVE COMPONENTS IN BITTER LEAF ROOT (VERNONIA AMYGDALINA) EXTRACTS IN THE TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS

Folorunsho Oluwole 39 PAGES (8304 WORDS) Project
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ABSTRACT

This research work is on the preliminary determination of active components in bitter leaf root (vernonia amygdalina) in the treatment of diabetes. Deficiency of hormone (insulin) causes diabetes mellitus, a disease due to too much of sugar being present in the blood. This is because without insulin in the body, the result is that sugar is extracted in the urine. Consequently, fat and proteins are readily converted to carbohydrates and finally, glucose eventually. The body reserves are used up and muscular weakness set in. This research work also is to critically look at the concept of diabetes mellitus causes, symptoms, types, anatomy and physiology of the pancreas and the effect of vernonia amygdalina root on diabetes mellitus. Also to provide adequate care for diabetes mellitus patients and to alleviate complication. Finally to determine the critical effect of different extracts of vernonia amygdalina root on wistar rats and to see the frequency on the curves. Alloxan (2, 4, 5, 6-tetraoxypyrimidine; 2, 4, 5, 6-pyrimidinetetrone) is a toxic glucose analogue, which selectively destroys insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells and causes a non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), when administered to animal species. In this study, the protective effects of bitter leaf root on glucose tolerance test and alloxan induced diabetes were evaluated. An effort was also made to investigate the acute toxicity (LD50) of the extracts and the qualitative presence of phytoconstituents in the extracts. Male wistar albino rats (weighing 100–170g) were studies for glucose tolerance test and alloxan induced diabetes. Ethanol, methanol, hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of bitter leaf root were selected for anti-diabetic activity. Blood glucose levels were estimated at different day’s intervals on the treatment with bitter leaf root extracts and glibenclamide. These levels were compared with those of the diabetic control group. Phytochemicals analysis of bitter leaf root revealed the presence of flavonoids, carbohydrates, steroids, tannins and phenolic compounds. All the extracts of bitter leaf roots exhibited significant anti-diabetic effect in both the experimental models of diabetes mellitus. The results justified the traditional use of roots in the treatment of diabetes.          



TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE                                                                                                                            PAGE

DEDICATION                                                                                                                      ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                                                                     iii

ABSTRACT                                                                                                                          iv        

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                                       v

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION                                                                                                          1

1.1 WHAT IS DIABETES MELLITUS                                                                                  1

1.2 FACTORS THAT LEAD TO ALL TYPES OF DIABETES MILLITUS                              1

1.3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE PANCREAS                                                 2

1.4 INSULIN                                                                                                                         2

1.5 IMPACT OF DIABETES ON HUMAN HEALTH                                                           4

1.6 THE CHRONIC IMPLICATION OF DIABETES                                                             4

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW                                                                                                  6

2.1 REVIEW OF RELATIVE LITERATURE                                                                          6

2.2 TYPES OF DIABETES MILLITUS                                                                                  7

2.3 SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES MELLITUS                                                                      8

2.4 HOW CAN THE BURDEN OF DIABETES BE REDUCED?                                         8

2.5 NORMOGLYCAEMIC ANIMAL MODEL                                                                    9

2.6 ORAL GLUCOSE LOADING ANIMAL MODEL                                                          9

2.7 CHEMICAL INDUCTION OF DIABETES MELLITUS                                                 9

2.8 COMPOSITION OF BITTER LEAF ROOT                                                                 10

2.9 BITTER LEAF PLANT PICTURE                                                                                 12

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 METHODOLOGY                                                                                                       13

3.1 SAMPLE COLLECTION                                                                                              13

3.2 METHOD OF EXTRACTION                                                                                      13

3.3 PHYTOCHEMICALS ANALYSIS OF BITTER LEAF ROOT                                         14

3.4 QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PHYTOCHEMICALS OF BITTER LEAF            15

3.5 QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS                                                                                       15

3.6 PREPARATION OF GLICLIAMIDE SOLUTION                                                         17

3.7 PREPARATION OF ALLOXAN MONOHYDRATE SOLUTION                                 17

3.8 PREPARATION OF THE EXTRACTS SOLUTION                                                      17

3.9 ANIMAL STUDY                                                                                                         17

3.10 COLLECTION AND ACCLIMATIZATION OF RATS                                                18

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULTS                                                                                                                            20

DISSCUSIONS                                                                                                                   22

CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSION                                                                                                                  24

RECOMMENDATION                                                                                                     25

REFERENCE                                                                                                                     26


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APA

Folorunsho, O (2019). PRELIMINARY DETERMINATION OF THE ACTIVE COMPONENTS IN BITTER LEAF ROOT (VERNONIA AMYGDALINA) EXTRACTS IN THE TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS. Afribary.com: Retrieved October 17, 2019, from https://afribary.com/works/preliminary-determination-of-the-active-components-in-bitter-leaf-root-vernonia-amygdalina-extracts-in-the-treatment-of-diabetes-mellitus

MLA 8th

Oluwole, Folorunsho. "PRELIMINARY DETERMINATION OF THE ACTIVE COMPONENTS IN BITTER LEAF ROOT (VERNONIA AMYGDALINA) EXTRACTS IN THE TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 10 Oct. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/preliminary-determination-of-the-active-components-in-bitter-leaf-root-vernonia-amygdalina-extracts-in-the-treatment-of-diabetes-mellitus . Accessed 17 Oct. 2019.

MLA7

Oluwole, Folorunsho. "PRELIMINARY DETERMINATION OF THE ACTIVE COMPONENTS IN BITTER LEAF ROOT (VERNONIA AMYGDALINA) EXTRACTS IN THE TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 10 Oct. 2019. Web. 17 Oct. 2019. < https://afribary.com/works/preliminary-determination-of-the-active-components-in-bitter-leaf-root-vernonia-amygdalina-extracts-in-the-treatment-of-diabetes-mellitus >.

Chicago

Oluwole, Folorunsho. "PRELIMINARY DETERMINATION OF THE ACTIVE COMPONENTS IN BITTER LEAF ROOT (VERNONIA AMYGDALINA) EXTRACTS IN THE TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS" Afribary.com (2019). Accessed October 17, 2019. https://afribary.com/works/preliminary-determination-of-the-active-components-in-bitter-leaf-root-vernonia-amygdalina-extracts-in-the-treatment-of-diabetes-mellitus