POLLUTION INDICES OF TRACE METALS IN ROADSIDE SOIL

ERNEST SOLOMON DR. GODWIN EBONG 45 PAGES (11834 WORDS) Project
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ABSTRACT

 

Roadside soil samples were obtained from Eka Street, Oron Road, Ikot Ekpene Road and Nwaniba Road within Uyo metropolis, Akwa Ibom State. Roadside soils were also obtained from Uwana Lane and used as Control. These samples and Control were analysed for the concentration of Cadmium (Cd), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn) and Iron using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) unicam 939 model. Results obtained indicated the following mean concentration (mg/kg) for metals in roadside soil samples: Cd (2.04±3.65), Ni (20.43± 36.55), Pb (2.74 ± 4.89), Zn (26.24 ± 46.94), Fe (491.79 ± 879.74). While lower mean concentrations of these metals were reported in the Control as shown in the result: Cd (1.38 ± 3.65), Ni (13.07 ± 36.55), Pb (1.73 ± 4.89), Zn (9.68 ± 46.95) and Fe (241.49 ± 879.74). The degree of contamination (Cdeg) ranged between 6.69 and 11.37 indicating moderate pollution status of studied roadside soils by these metals. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) revealed that the studied roadside soils varied between unpolluted to moderately polluted class. However, the enrichment factor (EF) model analysis revealed that the occurrence of these metals in studied roadside soils were mostly due to natural processes as their enrichment factor (EF) values ranged between 0.5 and 2.0. The environmental and health implications of results obtained have been highlighted.

 

Keyword: Roadside soil, Trace metals, Enrichment factor, Geoaccumulation index and Contamination factor.

 


 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                                                                                    Page

Cover page

Title page        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           i

Certification    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           ii

Dedication      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iii

Acknowledgements    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iv

Abstract          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           v

Table of Contents       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           vi

List of Tables -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -          

CHAPTER ONE

1.0         INTRODUCTION      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           1

1.1         Soil Pollution     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           2

1.2         Roadside Soil and it effect as pollution                        -           -           -           -           -           3

1.3         Sources of Soil Pollution by trace metals          -           -           -           -           -           5

1.4         Effects of Soil Waste    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           5

1.5         Waste management and Control           -           -           -           -           -           -           6

1.6         Toxicity of Trace metals            -           -           -           -           -           -           -           7

1.7         Aim of Study    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           9

CHAPTER TWO

2.0         REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE       -           -           -           -           -           10

CHAPTER THREE

3.0         SAMPLING AND METHODS                       -           -           -           -           -           -           20

3.1         Description of the Study area   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           20

3.2         Site Collection   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           20

3.1.2 Sampling and Sample Collection           -           -           -           -           -           -           20

3.1.3  Sample Preparation        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           21

3.1.4  Digestion of Soil samples          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           21

3.2     Sample Analysis            -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           21

          CHAPTER FOUR

4.0         RESULTS AND DISCUSSION          -           -           -           -           -           -           22

4.1         Results   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           22

4.2         Discussion of Results    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           22

4.3         Contamination factor/Degree of Contamination           -           -           -           -           25

4.4         Geoaccumulation Index                        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           27

4.5         Enrichment factor          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           28s

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0         SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS        -           -           30

5.1         Summary           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -          -            30

5.2         Conclusion         -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           30

5.3         Recommendations         -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           31

References

 

 


 

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APA

ERNEST, S (2019). POLLUTION INDICES OF TRACE METALS IN ROADSIDE SOIL. Afribary.com: Retrieved March 04, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/project-ernest-correct-3

MLA 8th

SOLOMON, ERNEST. "POLLUTION INDICES OF TRACE METALS IN ROADSIDE SOIL" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 05 Mar. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/project-ernest-correct-3 . Accessed 04 Mar. 2021.

MLA7

SOLOMON, ERNEST. "POLLUTION INDICES OF TRACE METALS IN ROADSIDE SOIL". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 05 Mar. 2019. Web. 04 Mar. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/project-ernest-correct-3 >.

Chicago

SOLOMON, ERNEST. "POLLUTION INDICES OF TRACE METALS IN ROADSIDE SOIL" Afribary.com (2019). Accessed March 04, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/project-ernest-correct-3