Comparison of CaO-NPs and chicken egg shell derived CaO for the production of biodiesel from Schinziophyton rautanenii (Mongongo) nut oil

Abstract:

The ever-increasing population growth and economic developments have led to a

demand for energy. Therefore, this has resulted in a depletion and ever rising prices of

petroleum diesel, hence increasing environmental degradation. These complications

have motivated this study for the search of an alternative eco-friendly and renewable

source of energy such as biodiesel. Biodiesel has been found to be a potential alternative

fuel for diesel. It has the potential to solve the energy crisis depending on the availability

of feedstock and catalyst. In this study, biodiesel was produced by transesterification of

the mongongo (Schinziophyton rautanenii) nut oil in the presence of a heterogeneous

catalyst CaO. CaO is used in this study because it is highly active and is the commonly

used solid catalyst for transesterification reaction. CaO was derived from eggshell ash

and synthesized CaO-nanoparticles. The catalyst from eggshell ash and synthetic CaO nanoparticles were calcined at a temperature of 800 °C and characterized through;

Scanning Electron microscope- Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analyzer (SEM-EDX) where

both catalysts showed agglomerated and porous particles and high elemental

composition of Ca and O. Powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD) showed that CaO was present

in both catalysts and the average crystalline size calculated was 42 and 50 nm for CaO nanoparticles and eggshell ash respectively. Finally, Fourier Transmission-Infrared

(FTIR) spectrometer showed the absorption bands of CaO from both catalysts which were

at 875 and 713 cm-1 for CaO-nanoparticles and eggshell ash respectively.

Schinziophyton rautanenii (mongongo) is a multipurpose plant species in Southern Africa

with an ecosystem that provides a variety of goods and services such as food security,

employment and source of income to people from rural communities in Southern Africa.

The Schinziophyton rautanenii generally contains at least 60% of oil extracted from its nut

which has potential to produce biodiesel. The characterization of mongongo nut oil and

mongongo methyl esters (biodiesel) was done according to the European biodiesel

specification (EN 1421) and American society for testing and material (ASTM D675)

which are the standards set for biodiesel. The measured physicochemical properties of

the biodiesel were in the range of these international standards. The analysis of ii

mongongo methyl ester was through Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)

and the methyl esters were identified using mass spectrometric libraries. Statistically,

there was no significant difference between CaO-NPs and eggshell (P>0.05). However,

in terms of catalyst loading, the eggshell was a better catalyst as it required a low catalyst

load to obtain an optimum yield of 83% at 6 wt.% compared to CaO-NPs with an optimum

yield of 85% at 12 wt.%. The reactions were all performed at constant reaction conditions

of 9:1 methanol to oil ratio, 3 h reaction time and 65 ֯C reaction temperature.

Subscribe to access this work and thousands more
Overall Rating

0

5 Star
(0)
4 Star
(0)
3 Star
(0)
2 Star
(0)
1 Star
(0)
APA

C, M (2024). Comparison of CaO-NPs and chicken egg shell derived CaO for the production of biodiesel from Schinziophyton rautanenii (Mongongo) nut oil. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/comparison-of-cao-nps-and-chicken-egg-shell-derived-cao-for-the-production-of-biodiesel-from-schinziophyton-rautanenii-mongongo-nut-oil

MLA 8th

C, Mmusi "Comparison of CaO-NPs and chicken egg shell derived CaO for the production of biodiesel from Schinziophyton rautanenii (Mongongo) nut oil" Afribary. Afribary, 30 Mar. 2024, https://afribary.com/works/comparison-of-cao-nps-and-chicken-egg-shell-derived-cao-for-the-production-of-biodiesel-from-schinziophyton-rautanenii-mongongo-nut-oil. Accessed 28 May. 2024.

MLA7

C, Mmusi . "Comparison of CaO-NPs and chicken egg shell derived CaO for the production of biodiesel from Schinziophyton rautanenii (Mongongo) nut oil". Afribary, Afribary, 30 Mar. 2024. Web. 28 May. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/comparison-of-cao-nps-and-chicken-egg-shell-derived-cao-for-the-production-of-biodiesel-from-schinziophyton-rautanenii-mongongo-nut-oil >.

Chicago

C, Mmusi . "Comparison of CaO-NPs and chicken egg shell derived CaO for the production of biodiesel from Schinziophyton rautanenii (Mongongo) nut oil" Afribary (2024). Accessed May 28, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/comparison-of-cao-nps-and-chicken-egg-shell-derived-cao-for-the-production-of-biodiesel-from-schinziophyton-rautanenii-mongongo-nut-oil

Document Details
Mmusi, Keene C Field: Chemistry Type: Paper 98 PAGES (20593 WORDS) (pdf)