Technology

Technology Research Papers/Topics

Lessons from Covid-19: A Silver Lining for Teaching and Learning In Selected Lesotho Institutions of Higher Learning

Abstract: There has been a myriad of negative implications on teaching and learning at tertiary level that came along with the emergence of Covid-19 pandemic. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the lessons and opportunities presented by the pandemic to the learning and teaching process in Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs). The study employed a survey design and used diary and semistructured questionnaires as key data generation tools. A sample of 80 lecturing staff was used fro...

Design and simulation of autonomous anti-rain construction site cover system

Abstract: Water distribution systems mostly involve laying of pipes with the digging of trenches to lay down water pipes as a significant activity. During rainy seasons, trenches tend to fill-up with rainwater before the said pipes could be laid. This poses a danger to workers and residents due to potential landslides. This paper presents the design and simulation of an autonomous anti-rain construction site cover system (AARCSCS), which automates the process of covering a trench or excavati...

Control of stem borers and striga in African cereals: a low input push-pull approach with rapidly expanding impact

Abstract: A system which comprises intercropping between rows of maize with plants that repel stem borers and attract natural enemies, and which also dramatically reduce the level of striga infestation, combined with a surrounding crop of plants that trap out pests, has been developed for use by resource-poor farmers in sub-Saharan Africa.The intercrop and trap crops provide forage for cattle and goats. The technology is called “push-pull”. It is knowledge-intensive and there are lessons...

Containment Studies of TransgenicMosquitoes in Disease Endemic Countries:The Broad Concept of Facilities Readiness

Abstract: Genetic strategies for large scale pest or vector control using modified insects are not yet operational in Africa,and currently rely on import of the modified strains to begin preliminary, contained studies. Early involvementof research teams from participating countries is crucial to evaluate candidate field interventions. Following therecommended phased approach for novel strategies, evaluation should begin with studies in containmentfacilities. Experiences to prepare facilities...

Mapping Exposure of Cattle to Rift Valley Fever Virus Along their Migratory Routes

Abstract: Aedes mosquito is the primary vector for Rift Valley fever virus which affects humans and animals. Virus transmission pathways in animals occurs when bitten by infected mosquito or when viremic animals relocate to new regions with competent mosquitoes. Though Rift Valley fever is a transboundary disease with serious economic consequences, movement of viremic animals in search of pasture or trade in spreading the diseases is not fully understood. This research was undertaken in orde...

Evolution and Diagnostic Potential of Major Surface Proteases from Trypanosoma Vivax, T.Brucei Brucei and T.Congolense

Abstract: Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis is a disease unique to Africa, affecting both humans and animals. This disease occurs in about 10 million km2 in 37 sub-Saharan countries corresponding approximately to one-third of Africa's total land area, and threatens an estimated 50 million people and 48 million cattle. The estimated annual losses in cattle production alone are in the range of 1.0-1.2 billion dollars. The diagnosis of trypanosomiasis is notoriously difficult as there are no s...

Molecular Identification and Characterization of Spiroplasma in Anopheles Arabiensis from Kenya

Abstract: Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) are a devastating global health problem. Mosquitoes are amongst the most important vectors of human VBDs. Several measures have been put in place to manage and eliminate these vectors, however they have all faced a variety of setbacks and raising the need to develop other methods of control. The use of bacterial endosymbionts is a highly promising new method to explore for this purpose. This study aimed to identify and characterize Spiroplasma, a matern...

Characterization of Microhabitats of Arboviral Mosquito Vector Larvae on Three Islands of Lake Victoria, Kenya

Abstract: Mosquitoes are the primary vectors of arboviral infections. As there are no vaccines or effective therapeutic treatments for these diseases, vector control is an important approach for curbing their circulation or transmission. These vectors spend the first three of their four life stages in aquatic habitats where fitness and efficiency of adult mosquitoes to transmit arboviral infections is greatly influenced. Understanding ecology of mosquitoes in their aquatic habitats is theref...

Application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) in microbiological water quality analysis

Abstract: Water is life thus access to safe drinking water is essential to health and a basic human right. Kenya is considered a water scarce country whose water sources are becoming more contaminated through changes in land use and poor solid waste management. This has in turn affected the quantity and quality of portable water available. There are nearly 1.7 billion cases of waterborne diarrheal disease every year with over 760 000 deaths of children under five years. Traditional methods o...

Characterization Of Erythrocyte Receptor Polymorphisms In A Malaria Endemic Population In Kilifi, Kenya

Abstract: Malaria is a strong selective force in the human genome, selecting genes for resistance to disease in human populations living in malaria endemic areas. Selection by malaria has generated genetic variations, providing evolutionary driving force mediating polymorphisms such as Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency and sickle-cell anaemia. Genes encoding erythrocyte receptors of Plasmodium falciparum especially the sialoglycoproteins, glycophorins A, Band C, which are the main...

Genetic Characterization of Honeybee (Apis mellifera) in Comoros Islands using Mitochondrial and Microsatellite Markers

Abstract: Honeybees, Apis mellifera, are key contributors to the global economy, nutrition, food security and ecological biodiversity. Despite their robust benefits, declines in honeybee populations have been reported owing to a number of factors. Such include pests and diseases, climate change, poor management practices, change in land usage and low ge-netic diversity. High intra-colonial genetic diversity is associated with resilience and re-sistance to pest and diseases as well as increas...

Assessment of Kairomones as a Monitoring Tool for Cotesia Flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

Abstract: Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) is a major pest of maize in East Africa. Its indigenous natural enemies are unable to regulate its densities to a level acceptable to farmers. Cotesia flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of C. partellus now established in Kenya, was released in 1993 from Pakistan for the control of this pest. A major constraint in evaluating the establishment of C. flavipes, is the great amount of time spent for its field collection and identifi...

Enrichment, Isolation and Characterization of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ddt) Microbial Degraders from Soils in Kenya

Abstract: Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been in use as an agricultural insecticide and as a disease vector control since 1939. Due to its persistence in the environment, its use has been surrounded by controversies regarding its safety to humans and the environment. There has been no reliable and replicable scientific evidence proving its harmful effects to humans though DDT was banned in many developed nations by 1970s. The DDT ban has seen to the reemergence of malaria and othe...

Characterization of soil bacteria capable of degrading selected organic pesticides applied in horticultural farms in Kenya

Abstract: Pesticide use has been one of the major factors in improving productivity in agricultural enterprises. Pesticide residues in food and drinking water when ingested affect human health while ecosystems are also affected through loss of biodiversity. The aim of the research was to survey pesticide usage in farms under horticultural production, isolate bacterial strains, evaluate their biodegradation potential of selected pesticides, characterize the bacteria isolates morphologically, ...

Optimization of growth conditions of Bacillus thuringiensis isolates from various sources in Kenya and toxicity assays of their delta-endotoxin against Chilo partellus

Abstract: Chemical pesticides have disadvantages such as high production costs, short persistence, comparative low efficacy, development of resistance to toxin and causing ecological damage. In order to obtain cheaper biopesticides, many locally available and inexpensive agricultural/industrial byproducts have potential as culture media for Bacillus thuringiensis Crystal protein production. In this study, cost-effective media were developed, based on locally available raw materials namely le...


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