Quantitative assessment of static versus dynamic environmental pollution risk from lead pollution at shooting ranges

Abstract:

Lead pollution of soil arising from use of leaded ammunition in shooting ranges has received

considerable attention from researchers, scientists, policy makers and legislatures. This is due

to the adverse health effects associated with exposure to Pb. Eight military shooting ranges

found in Botswana were used in this research project. All the eight shooting range soils were

polluted with Pb with total Pb concentrations in the range 13-38 386 mg/kg. TAB shooting

range soils accumulated the highest concentration of Pb. Most of the shooting ranges studied

had Pb loading of over 1000 mg/kg, far surpasing the United States Environmental Protection

Agency (USEPA) set maximum contaminant limt (MCL) value of 400 mg/kg. Fractionation

studies established that Pb existed mostly in the carbonate form and the X-ray diffraction

(XRD) patterns showed higher proportions of the cerussite (PbCO3) and hydrocerussite

(PbCO3H2O). The SPLP-Pb concentrations in all the eight shooting ranges were higher than

the USEPA set critical limit of 0.015 mg/kg, which indicates possible contamination of water

sources. Determining total Pb concentration in shooting range soils only gives information on

the amount of Pb stored in the soil but does not quantify the pollution risk to the environment.

The amount of Pb deposited in shooting range soil may be in inert form, posing low risk to

biota. To quantify the environmental pollution risk, pollution risk indices have been found to

be suitable for this task. Contamination factor (CF), enrichment factor (EF) and potential

ecological risk index (PERI) provided a good quantitative measure of environmental

pollution risk posed by Pb accumulated in shooting range soils compared to total Pb

concentration. TAB shooting range posed the highest risk to environmental pollution with

highest CF of over 40000 indicating very high contamination and this correlated well with

the amount of Pb deposited into the shooting range. In contrast, TSH shooting range

experienced lower total concetration of Pb compared to MAK shooting range. However, TSH

shooting range displayed a higher contamination factor (CF~9360) compared to MAK with

CF ~ 3585 and corresponding total Pb concentrations of 13309.06 mg/kg and 25,193.19

mg/kg respectively. Similarly, TSH experienced higher enrichment factor (EF) than MAK

with EF ~ 4916 and 2432 respectively.

This means that TSH shooting range posed higher environmental pollution risk than MAK

even though it accumulated lower total Pb concentration compared to MAK. It should be

appreciated that total Pb concentration alone does not give a complete assessment of the

environmental pollution risk posed by Pb in shooting range soils. Total concentration gives a

static assessment of the pollution risk and does not provide insight into the effects of

physicochemical properties of the environment or its holding capacity on total Pbxix

concentration. Therefore, it is important to treat environmental pollution risk as a dynamic

evolution process such that concentration of Pb in the environment would change with

changing soil physicochemical properties and the holding capacity of the environment. The

delayed geochemical hazard (DGH) model was used to show that environmental pollution

risk from Pb is a dynamic process as opposed to static. The DGH model describes the

potential transformation and release of Pb partitioned in the different fractions of the soil that

may be inert but becoming reactive when the conditions of the soil such as pH, moisture and

organic matter become favourable or when the Pb deposited into the soil exceeds the soil

holding capacity. This model was applied to the TAB shooting range which is highly polluted

with Pb. The findings indicated that TAB shooting range may be classified as high-risk area

of Pb DGH with over 65% of Pb capable of being transformed into the mobile and

bioavailable chemical forms. The high Pb deposition into shooting range soils calls for

immediate remedial action. The use of chemical amendments, Pb accumulating plants and

physical techniques such as soil sieving have proven to minimize Pb pollution at shooting

ranges.

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APA

Nicholas, S (2024). Quantitative assessment of static versus dynamic environmental pollution risk from lead pollution at shooting ranges. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/quantitative-assessment-of-static-versus-dynamic-environmental-pollution-risk-from-lead-pollution-at-shooting-ranges

MLA 8th

Nicholas, Sehube "Quantitative assessment of static versus dynamic environmental pollution risk from lead pollution at shooting ranges" Afribary. Afribary, 30 Mar. 2024, https://afribary.com/works/quantitative-assessment-of-static-versus-dynamic-environmental-pollution-risk-from-lead-pollution-at-shooting-ranges. Accessed 25 May. 2024.

MLA7

Nicholas, Sehube . "Quantitative assessment of static versus dynamic environmental pollution risk from lead pollution at shooting ranges". Afribary, Afribary, 30 Mar. 2024. Web. 25 May. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/quantitative-assessment-of-static-versus-dynamic-environmental-pollution-risk-from-lead-pollution-at-shooting-ranges >.

Chicago

Nicholas, Sehube . "Quantitative assessment of static versus dynamic environmental pollution risk from lead pollution at shooting ranges" Afribary (2024). Accessed May 25, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/quantitative-assessment-of-static-versus-dynamic-environmental-pollution-risk-from-lead-pollution-at-shooting-ranges

Document Details
Sehube, Nicholas Field: Chemistry Type: Paper 132 PAGES (34881 WORDS) (pdf)