Education

Research Papers/Topics in Education

Educational Pathways to Remote Employment in Isolated Communities

Those who live in isolated communities often lack reliable, skilled employment opportunities, which fundamentally undermines their human security. For individuals who wish to remain in their isolated communities for family, religious, philosophical or other reasons, their attachment to their communities creates a disincentive for higher education. This promotes low educational achievement, which in turn results in low socioeconomic status, lack of social mobility, and a generational cycle of ...

Free and Open-source Control Software for 3-D Motion and Processing

RepRap 3-D printers and their derivatives using conventional firmware are limited by: 1) requiring technical knowledge, 2) poor resilience with unreliable hardware, and 3) poor integration in complicated systems. In this paper, a new control system called Franklin, for CNC machines in general and 3-D printers specifically, is presented that enables web-based three dimensional control of additive, subtractive and analytical tools from any Internet connected device. Franklin can be set up and c...

Open-Source Self-Replicating 3-D Printer Factory for Small-Business Manufacturing

Additive manufacturing with 3-D printers may be a key technology enabler for entrepreneurs seeking to use disruptive innovations, such as business models utilizing distributed manufacturing. Unlike centralized manufacturing, distributed manufacturing makes the parts and products (the prints) at (or closer to) the source of the demand, cutting out much of the traditional supply chain. Although many expect 3-D printing to take off at the household level and previous work has shown significant r...

Open-source Wax RepRap 3-D Printer for Rapid Prototyping Paper-Based Microfluidics

The open-source release of self-replicating rapid prototypers (RepRaps) has created a rich opportunity for low-cost distributed digital fabrication of complex 3-D objects such as scientific equipment. For example, 3-D printable reactionware devices offer the opportunity to combine open hardware microfluidic handling with lab-on-a-chip reactionware to radically reduce costs and increase the number and complexity of microfluidic applications. To further drive down the cost while improving the p...

Open-source 3-D Platform for Low-cost Scientific Instrument Ecosystem

The combination of open-source software and hardware provide technically feasible methods to create low-cost, highly-customized scientific research equipment. Open-source 3-D printers have proven useful for fabricating scientific tools. Here the capabilities of an open-source 3-D printer are expanded to become a highly-flexible scientific platform. An automated low-cost 3-D motion control platform is presented having the capacity to perform scientific applications including: i) 3-D printing o...

Free and Open Source Automated 3-D Microscope

Open-source technology not only has facilitated the expansion of the greater research community, but by lowering costs it has encouraged innovation and customizable design. The field of automated microscopy has continued to be a challenge in accessibility due the expense and inflexible, non-interchangeable stages. This paper presents a low-cost, open source microscope 3-D stage. A RepRap 3-D printer was converted to an optical microscope equipped with a customized, 3-D printed holder for a US...

Democratising design in scientific innovation: application of an open value network to open source hardware design

Open source hardware (OSH) development has been gaining momentum in recent years with several communities attempting to formalise its various aspects. One particularly promising area is the design of open source scientific hardware. Previous work has shown that the use of digital fabrication techniques has allowed scientists to make high-quality scientific tools for 1-10% of the cost of commercial proprietary equipment. Open source scientific hardware (and the open science movement in which i...

Open Source 3-D Printers: An Appropriate Technology for Developing Communities

The recent introduction of RepRap (Self-Replicating Rapid Prototyper) 3-D printers and the resultant open source technological improvements have resulted in affordable 3-D printing, enabling low-cost distributed manufacturing for individuals. This development and others such as the rise of open source-appropriate technology (OSAT) and solar powered 3-D printing are moving 3-D printing from an industry specific technology to one that could be used in the developing world for sustainable develo...

Free and Open Source 3-D Model Customizer for Websites to Democratize Design with OpenSCAD

3-D printing has entered the consumer market because of recent radical price declines. Consumers can save substantial money by offsetting purchases with DIY pre-designed 3-D printed products. However, even more value can be obtained with distributed manufacturing using mass customization. Unfortunately, the average consumer is not technically sophisticated enough to easily design their own products. One solution to this is the use of an overlay on OpenSCAD parametric code, although current so...

Open Source 3-D Printers: An Appropriate Technology for Building Low Cost Optics Labs for the Developing Communities

The recent introduction of RepRap (self-replicating rapid prototyper) 3-D printers and the resultant open source technological improvements have resulted in affordable 3-D printing, enabling low-cost distributed manufacturing for individuals. This development and others such as the rise of open source-appropriate technology (OSAT) and solar powered 3-D printing are moving 3-D printing from an industry based technology to one that could be used in the developing world for sustainable developme...

National Academy of Engineering: Introduction to Open Hardware in Science and Engineering

The articles in this issue look at how the development and use of free and open source hardware (FOSH or simply “open hardware”) are changing the face of science, engineering, business, and law. Free and open source software (FOSS) has proven very successful and now dominates the development of software on a global scale. It is available in source code (open source) and can be used, studied, copied, modified, and redistributed either without restriction or with restrictions only to ensur...

Impacts of Open Source Hardware in Science and Engineering

There is an opportunity to radically reduce the costs of experimental research while improving it by supporting the development of free and open source hardware (FOSH) for science and engineering. By harnessing a scalable open source method, federal funding is spent just once for the development of scientific equipment and then a return on this investment is realized by direct digital replication of scientific devices for only the costs of materials. FOSH for science and engineering has been ...

THE ROLE OF EDUCATION IN ENSURING GENDER EQUALITY AND ITS EFFECT IN THE SOCIETY

ABSTRACTThe main thrust of the study was to examine the role of education in ensuring gender equality and its effect in the society. Specifically, the study was set out to find out how education has changed values and promote gender equality, determine how sex segregation in education is a risk to the society among others. Five research questions and five hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Relevant literature were reviewed. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the stud...

Towards Quantifiable Metrics Warranting Industry-Wide Corporate Death Penalties

In the singular search for profits, some corporations inadvertently kill humans. If this routinely occurs throughout an industry, it may no longer serve a net positive social purpose for society and should be eliminated. This article provides a path to an objective quantifiable metric for determining when an entire industry warrants the corporate death penalty. First, a theoretical foundation is developed with minimum assumptions necessary to provide evidence for corporate public purposes. Th...

The impact of effective teaching characteristics

This paper investigates the extent to which teacher behaviour in classroom affects student achievement gains in mathematics in Ghana. A representative sample of primary schools from three districts of the Upper East Region of Ghana was selected (n = 73) using stage sampling procedure, and written tests in mathematics were administered to all grade six students at the beginning and end of school year 2013– 2014. Two observation instruments and a student questionnaire were used in collecting ...


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