Education

Research Papers/Topics in Education

Quoting and Translating in Historical Research - A Justification

The ultimate concern of a historian is the possibility of gaining the knowledge of events and actions (in the course of time) which are no longer available for direct inspection. These happening have been preserved in material (as archival, written, archaeological etch.) and immaterial (oral tradition) forms. A historian is therefore charged with the task of piecing this event and actions together for an understanding of the theme to which he/she is engaged. Through the descriptive and exposi...

The RepRap 3-D Printer Revolution in STEM Education

STEM is an acronym for science, technology, engineering and mathematics fields of study meant to improve U.S. competitiveness by guiding curriculum and influencing education policy. STEM education begins with K-12 educators, who are struggling with how to implement the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) that now place explicit emphasis on the relationship of engineering to science. The NGSS guidelines suggest that science curriculum should have activities with an iterative process invol...

Open-source 3-D printing Technologies for education: Bringing Additive Manufacturing to the Classroom

Objective 3-D printing technologies have the potential to improve both Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and Career and Technical Education (CTE), as well as integrating these two educational emphases and providing opportunities for cross-curriculum engagement. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of open-source (OS) technologies in an educational setting, given the combination of economic constraints affecting all educational envir...

A Virtual Educational Exchange: A North-South Virtually-Shared Class on Sustainable Development

Increasingly international competence is considered and important skill to be acquired from an undergraduate education. Because international exchange presents a challenge to many students, there is a need to develop and implement alternative means for incorporating international and cross-cultural experiences into the undergraduate classroom. We report on the implementation of a semester-long, virtually-shared course offering between a U.S. and a Bolivian university. Since STEM (science, tec...

Evaluation of RepRap 3D Printer Workshops in K-12 STEM

As facilitators of 3D printer workshops, the authors developed a survey to gage how the printers are actually being used and whether they support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) requirements, especially in regard to engineering design. The survey response rate was 52% of 68 total participants with the majority conveying that 3D printers do facilitate student understanding of the engineering design process and that the workshops empowered them and their students to tackle projects...

Educational Pathways to Remote Employment in Isolated Communities

Those who live in isolated communities often lack reliable, skilled employment opportunities, which fundamentally undermines their human security. For individuals who wish to remain in their isolated communities for family, religious, philosophical or other reasons, their attachment to their communities creates a disincentive for higher education. This promotes low educational achievement, which in turn results in low socioeconomic status, lack of social mobility, and a generational cycle of ...

Free and Open-source Control Software for 3-D Motion and Processing

RepRap 3-D printers and their derivatives using conventional firmware are limited by: 1) requiring technical knowledge, 2) poor resilience with unreliable hardware, and 3) poor integration in complicated systems. In this paper, a new control system called Franklin, for CNC machines in general and 3-D printers specifically, is presented that enables web-based three dimensional control of additive, subtractive and analytical tools from any Internet connected device. Franklin can be set up and c...

Open-Source Self-Replicating 3-D Printer Factory for Small-Business Manufacturing

Additive manufacturing with 3-D printers may be a key technology enabler for entrepreneurs seeking to use disruptive innovations, such as business models utilizing distributed manufacturing. Unlike centralized manufacturing, distributed manufacturing makes the parts and products (the prints) at (or closer to) the source of the demand, cutting out much of the traditional supply chain. Although many expect 3-D printing to take off at the household level and previous work has shown significant r...

Open-source Wax RepRap 3-D Printer for Rapid Prototyping Paper-Based Microfluidics

The open-source release of self-replicating rapid prototypers (RepRaps) has created a rich opportunity for low-cost distributed digital fabrication of complex 3-D objects such as scientific equipment. For example, 3-D printable reactionware devices offer the opportunity to combine open hardware microfluidic handling with lab-on-a-chip reactionware to radically reduce costs and increase the number and complexity of microfluidic applications. To further drive down the cost while improving the p...

Open-source 3-D Platform for Low-cost Scientific Instrument Ecosystem

The combination of open-source software and hardware provide technically feasible methods to create low-cost, highly-customized scientific research equipment. Open-source 3-D printers have proven useful for fabricating scientific tools. Here the capabilities of an open-source 3-D printer are expanded to become a highly-flexible scientific platform. An automated low-cost 3-D motion control platform is presented having the capacity to perform scientific applications including: i) 3-D printing o...

Free and Open Source Automated 3-D Microscope

Open-source technology not only has facilitated the expansion of the greater research community, but by lowering costs it has encouraged innovation and customizable design. The field of automated microscopy has continued to be a challenge in accessibility due the expense and inflexible, non-interchangeable stages. This paper presents a low-cost, open source microscope 3-D stage. A RepRap 3-D printer was converted to an optical microscope equipped with a customized, 3-D printed holder for a US...

Democratising design in scientific innovation: application of an open value network to open source hardware design

Open source hardware (OSH) development has been gaining momentum in recent years with several communities attempting to formalise its various aspects. One particularly promising area is the design of open source scientific hardware. Previous work has shown that the use of digital fabrication techniques has allowed scientists to make high-quality scientific tools for 1-10% of the cost of commercial proprietary equipment. Open source scientific hardware (and the open science movement in which i...

Open Source 3-D Printers: An Appropriate Technology for Developing Communities

The recent introduction of RepRap (Self-Replicating Rapid Prototyper) 3-D printers and the resultant open source technological improvements have resulted in affordable 3-D printing, enabling low-cost distributed manufacturing for individuals. This development and others such as the rise of open source-appropriate technology (OSAT) and solar powered 3-D printing are moving 3-D printing from an industry specific technology to one that could be used in the developing world for sustainable develo...

Free and Open Source 3-D Model Customizer for Websites to Democratize Design with OpenSCAD

3-D printing has entered the consumer market because of recent radical price declines. Consumers can save substantial money by offsetting purchases with DIY pre-designed 3-D printed products. However, even more value can be obtained with distributed manufacturing using mass customization. Unfortunately, the average consumer is not technically sophisticated enough to easily design their own products. One solution to this is the use of an overlay on OpenSCAD parametric code, although current so...

Open Source 3-D Printers: An Appropriate Technology for Building Low Cost Optics Labs for the Developing Communities

The recent introduction of RepRap (self-replicating rapid prototyper) 3-D printers and the resultant open source technological improvements have resulted in affordable 3-D printing, enabling low-cost distributed manufacturing for individuals. This development and others such as the rise of open source-appropriate technology (OSAT) and solar powered 3-D printing are moving 3-D printing from an industry based technology to one that could be used in the developing world for sustainable developme...


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