Engineering

Research Papers/Topics in Engineering

Viability of Distributed Manufacturing of Bicycle Components with 3-D Printing: CEN Standardized Polylactic Acid Pedal Testing

Recent advancements in open-source self-replicating rapid prototypers (RepRap) have radically reduced costs of 3-D printing. The cost of additive manufacturing enables distributed manufacturing of open source appropriate technologies (OSAT) to assist in sustainable development. In order to investigate the potential this study makes a careful investigation of the use of RepRap 3-D printers to fabricate widely used Black Mamba bicycle components in the developing world. Specifically, this study...

Aquavoltaics: Synergies for Dual Use of Water Area for Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Generation and Aquaculture

Bodies of water provide essentials for both human society as well as natural ecosystems. To expand the services these water provide, hybrid food-energy-water systems can be designed. This paper reviews the fields of floatovoltaic (FV) technology (water deployed solar photovoltaic systems) and aquaculture (farming of aquatic organisms) to investigate the potential of hybrid floatovoltaic-aquaculture synergistic applications for improving food-energy-water nexus sustainability. The primary moti...

General Design Procedures for Airport-Based Solar Photovoltaic Systems

A source of large surface areas for solar photovoltaic (PV) farms that has been largely overlooked in the 13,000 United States of America (U.S.) airports. This paper hopes to enable PV deployments in most airports by providing an approach to overcome the three primary challenges identified by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA): (1) reflectivity and glare; (2) radar interference; and (3) physical penetration of airspace. First, these challenges and precautions that must be adhered to fo...

Agrivoltaic Potential on Grape Farms in India

Aggressive growth of land-based solar photovoltaic (PV) farms can create a land use conflict with agricultural production. Fortunately, this issue can be resolved using the concept of agrivoltaics, which is co-development of land area for both solar PV and agriculture. To investigate and quantify PV generation potential, without harming agriculture output, this study explores the viability of agrivoltaic farms deployment on existing grape farms in India. Considering the shade tolerance of gra...

Slicer and Process Improvements for Open­source GMAW ­based Metal 3­D Printing

Low­cost gas metal arc welding (GMAW)­based 3­D printing has proven effective at additive manufacturing steel and aluminum parts. Early success, however, was based on hand­writing G­code, which is inadequate for the majority of potential users. To enable automated slicing a 3­D model and generating G­code for an acceptable path for GMAW 3­D printing, this paper reports on upgrading of the free and open source CuraEngine. The new slicer, MOSTMetalCura, provides the following novel abil...

Synthetic method dependent physico- chemical properties and electrochemical performance of Ni doped Synthetic method dependent physico-chemical properties and electrochemical performance of N

Nickel doped zinc oxide (Ni/ZnO) nanostructures have the potential to improve the performance of electrochemical capacitors. This study investigates the preparation of Ni/ZnO nanomaterials by facile co-precipitation (CPM) and hydrothermal (HTM) methods. The effect of the synthesis methods on the optical, structural, chemical and morphological properties on ZnO products is investigated using ultra violet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron micro...

Belt-Driven Open Source Circuit Mill Using Low-Cost 3-D Printer Components

Barriers to inventing electronic devices involve challenges of iterating electronic designs due to long lead times for professional circuit board milling or high costs of commercial milling machines. To overcome these barriers, this study provides open source (OS) designs for a low-cost circuit milling machine. First, design modifications for mechanical and electrical subsystems of the OS Distributed 3-D (D3D) Robotics prototyping system are provided. Next, Copper Carve, an OS custom graphica...

Coal with Carbon Capture and Sequestration is not as Land Use Efficient as Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Climate Neutral Electricity Production

Avoiding climate destabilization caused by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, requires climate-neutral electricity sources. It has been proposed that the GHG emissions from coal-fired power plants can be offset by carbon capture and sequestration or bio-sequestration. However, solar photovoltaic (PV) technology has recently declined so far in costs it now offers both technical and economic potential to offset all of coal-fired electricity use. PV only emits GHGs during fabrication and not during...

Open source low-cost power monitoring system

This study presents an entirely open-source, low-cost power monitoring system capable of many types of measurements including both loads and supplies such as solar photovoltaic systems. In addition, the system can be fabricated using only open source software and hardware. The design revolves around the Digital Universal Energy Logger (DUEL) Node, which is responsible for reading and properly scaling the voltage and current of a particular load, and then serializing it via an on-board ATTiny8...

3-D Printable Open Source Dual Axis Gimbal System for Optoelectronic Measurements

Simple 3-D printable open source hardware designs have proven to be effective scientific instruments at low costs. Further development in this area is coupling open source electronics with 3-D printable mechanical components to make fully functional distributedly-manufactured mechatronic tools for science. One research area where such low-cost technology is needed is to characterize thin film anti-reflective coatings and transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) for the glass, mirror and solar pho...

An Assessment of Krokodilrivier Water Quality in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.

According to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) ‘s indicator baseline 2017 report of South Africa, the percentage of the population using safely managed drinking water services has remained more or less constant around 91% between 2014 and 2016. The observation of the same variable from 1996 to 2011, shows a significant increase from 76.6% to 89.4%. This therefore means between 2011 and 2016, the change has been insignificant. To have a sample analysis in this regard, on the ...

Evaluation and assessment of relocation from a city to the outskirts: Case study DHL Gävle Sweden

AbstractThe ‘City Logistics’ activities are contributing to traffic congestion and accumulating to environmental challenges, such situation has prompted the creation of urban consolidation centre (UCC), as a multimodal logistics park facility in the outskirts.The relocation of business from city to the outskirts requires the evaluation and assessment of the key factors in order to make the better decisions.However, no relocation decisions evaluation model has been found, neither its appli...

An Investigation and Comparison of Routing Protocols on a Load Balanced Network and the Study of Link Failure and Link Recovery

ABSTRACT.Routing protocol has taken some vital roles in this modern internet era. Routing protocol determines how routers communicates with each other to enable the forwarding of packets that takes place through the use of optimal path which enables transmission from one source node to the destination node. In this study work, the exploration of the important protocols, namely; Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP), Open Short Path First protocol (OSPF), Routing Information Proto...

Mornings Oleifera: A Review of an Underutilized Plant with Therapeutic Values in Nigeria

ABSTRACTMoringa oleifera grows in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is commonly known as ‘drumstick tree’ or ‘horseradish tree’ in Nigeria. Moringa can withstand both severe drought and mild frost conditions and hence widely cultivated across the world. With its high therapeutic values, every part of the tree is suitable for either nutritional or commercial purposes. The leaves are rich in minerals, vitamins and other essential phytochemicals. Extracts from the lea...

DESIGN OF A LOW COST MAIZE SHELLER

ABSTRACTMaize, known in many English-speaking countries as corn, is a grain domesticated by indigenous people in prehistoric times. The Aztecs and Mayans cultivated it in numerous varieties throughout central and southern Mexico, to cook or grind in a process called nixtamalization. The crop spread throughout America and later around the 1250 BC it spread to all corners of the region. Any significant or dense populations in the region developed a great trade network based on surplus and varie...


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