Engineering

Research Papers/Topics in Engineering

Desarrollo de un sistema de monitoreo de radiación solar basado en un espectrómetro de amplio espectro y análisis de resultados preliminares.

Se diseñó y construyó un prototipo funcional de un sistema de medición de radiación solar (global y difusa) basado en un espectrómetro de amplio espectro (UVA, VIS y parte del IR cercano) para el monitoreo solar en Cochabamba, Bolivia, conjuntamente con un sistema similar instalado en Ontario, Canadá. Los datos obtenidos en dos regiones con características geográficas muy distintas ayudaran en el estudio y optimización de materiales fotovoltaicos, para su implementación en diferent...

Retraining Investment for U.S. Transition from Coal to Solar Photovoltaic Employment

Although coal remains the largest source of electricity in the U.S., a combination of factors is driving a decrease in profitability and employment in the coal-sector. Meanwhile, the solar photovoltaic (PV) industry is growing rapidly in the U.S. and generating many jobs that represent employment opportunities for laid off coal workers. In order to determine the viability of a smooth transition from coal to PV-related employment, this paper provides an analysis of the cost to retrain current ...

A Review of Technical Requirements for Plug-and-Play Solar Photovoltaic Microinverter Systems in the United States

The average American is highly supportive of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology and has the opportunity to earn a high return of investment from a PV investment for their own home. Unfortunately, the average American does not have easy access to capital/financing to install a PV system able to meet their aggregate annual electric needs. One method to overcome this challenge is to allow 'plug-and-play solar', which is defined as a fully inclusive, commercial, off-the-shelf PV system (normally ...

Alternative Foods as a Solution to Global Food Supply Catastrophes

Analysis of future food security typically focuses on managing gradual trends such as population growth, natural resource depletion, and environmental degradation. However, several risks threaten to cause large and abrupt declines in food security. For example, nuclear war, volcanic eruptions, and asteroid impact events can block sunlight, causing abrupt global cooling. In extreme but entirely possible cases, these events could make agriculture infeasible worldwide for several years, creating...

Integrative Risk Management for abrupt catastrophes destroying 10%- 20% of global food supply

"Global Catastrophic Risks” collectively have ~1 in 10 probability of occurring per decade. With the possible exceptions of China, USA and South Korea, current resilience, financial systems and relief capacity are designed to mitigate only limited food price increases (such as in 2008 which was caused by impacts totalling

Vitamins in Agricultural Catastrophes

A number of catastrophes could block the sun, including asteroid/comet impact, super volcanic eruption, and nuclear war with the burning of cities (nuclear winter). Previous work has analysed alternate food supplies (e.g. mushrooms growing on dead trees, bacteria growing on natural gas). This was shown to be technically capable of feeding everyone with macronutrients (protein, carbohydrates, and lipids) and for minerals (though economics and politics remain uncertain). The present work analys...

3-D Printing Solar Photovoltaic Racking in Developing World

The purpose of this paper is to provide a technical and economic evaluation of the value of the RepRap as an entry-level 3-D printer in the developing world and provide a cost effective solar photovoltaic (PV) racking solution to better serve the developing world and aid in the acceleration of their economic and socioeconomic growth. A customizable open-source PV racking concept is designed, prototyped for three types of modules, constructed into systems, and outdoor tested under extreme cond...

U.S. Market for Solar Photovoltaic Plug-and-Play Systems

Plug and play solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are affordable, easy to install and portable grid-tied solar electric systems, which can be purchased and installed by an average prosumer (producing consumer). The combination of recent technical/safety analysis and trends in other advanced industrialized nations, indicate that U.S. electrical regulations may allow plug and play solar in the future. Such a shift in regulations could radically alter the current PV market. This study provides an es...

Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions for Alternate Food to Address Agricultural Catastrophes Globally

The literature suggests there is about a 1 % risk per year of a 10 % global agricultural shortfall due to catastrophes such as a large volcanic eruption, a medium asteroid or comet impact, regional nuclear war, abrupt climate change, and extreme weather causing multiple breadbasket failures. This shortfall has an expected mortality of about 500 million people. To prevent such mass starvation, alternate foods can be deployed that utilize stored biomass. This study developed a model with litera...

Feeding Everyone if the Sun is Obscured and Industry is Disabled

A number of catastrophes could block the sun, including asteroid/comet impact, super volcanic eruption, and nuclear war with the burning of cities (nuclear winter). The problem of feeding 7 billion people would arise (the food problem is more severe than other problems associated with these catastrophes). Previous work has shown this is possible converting stored biomass to food if industry is present. A number of risks could destroy electricity globally, including a series of high-altitude e...

Emergence of Home Manufacturing in the Developed World: Return on Investment for Open-Source 3-D Printers

Through reduced 3-D printer cost, increased usability, and greater material selection, additive manufacturing has transitioned from business manufacturing to the average prosumer. This study serves as a representative model for the potential future of 3-D printing in the average American household by employing a printer operator who was relatively unfamiliar with 3-D printing and the 3-D design files of common items normally purchased by the average consumer. Twenty-six items were printed in ...

Open source laboratory sample rotator mixer and shaker

An open-source 3-D printable laboratory sample rotator mixer is developed here in two variants that allow users to opt for the level of functionality, cost saving and associated complexity needed in their laboratories. First, a laboratory sample rotator is designed and demonstrated that can be used for tumbling as well as gentle mixing of samples in a variety of tube sizes by mixing them horizontally, vertically, or any position in between. Changing the mixing angle is fast and convenient and...

U.S. strategic solar photovoltaic-powered microgrid deployment for enhanced national security

The U.S. electrical grid, the largest and most complex man-made system in the world, is highly vulnerable to three types of external threats: 1) natural disasters, 2) intentional physical attacks, and 3) cyber-attacks. The technical community has recommended hardening the grid to make it more resilient to attack by using distributed generation and microgrids. Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are an ideal distributed generation technology to provide power for such microgrids. However, both the ...

Design and Implementation of an Automatic Security Lighting for ATBU, Yelwa Campus

Design and Implementation of an Automatic Security Lighting for ATBU, Yelwa Campus Chior David #1, Ifeora Henry #2 and Lisiyas Alfred #3. #1 Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi. #2 Department of Systems Engineering, University of Lagos, Lagos. #3 Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Bayero University Kano, Kano.   Abstract— This paper has covered the design of an automatic security light...

Viability of Distributed Manufacturing of Bicycle Components with 3-D Printing: CEN Standardized Polylactic Acid Pedal Testing

Recent advancements in open-source self-replicating rapid prototypers (RepRap) have radically reduced costs of 3-D printing. The cost of additive manufacturing enables distributed manufacturing of open source appropriate technologies (OSAT) to assist in sustainable development. In order to investigate the potential this study makes a careful investigation of the use of RepRap 3-D printers to fabricate widely used Black Mamba bicycle components in the developing world. Specifically, this study...


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