Environmental & Physical Sciences

Environmental & Physical Sciences Research Papers/Topics

Integrated Management of Fall Armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Maize (Zea mays L.) Using Climate Smart Approach at University of Zambia, Field Research

Abstract: The fall armyworm (FAW) (Spodoptera frugiperda) is a devastating pest of maize which has recently invaded the African continent. Since its first reports in Africa in 2016, it has spread rapidly in Zambia and it is causing extensive damage to maize and other cereal crops. The efficacy of the integration of botanical pesticides with entomopathogenic fungi and synthetic pesticide, on FAW were tested under field conditions. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block des...

BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM CO-DIGESTION OF COW DUNG AND BARLEY STRAW

Abstract: Biogas can be produced from any biodegradable feedstock that is suitable for anaerobic digestion. In present day biogas production from barley straw and cow dung was investigated using the number of small reactors. Barley straw was co digested with Cow dung with the aim of biogas production. Five treatment mixtures of Barley straw and Cow dung in ratio of 100% Barley straw(BS), 70% Barley straw(BS) and 30% Cow dung(CD) , 50% Barley straw(BS) and 50% Cow dung(CD) , 30% Barley straw ...

WOODY SPECIES DIVERSITY AND CARBON STOCK VARIATION ALONG ALTITUDINAL GRADIENTS AT MUHABURA VOLCANO, NORTHERN RWANDA

Abstract: This study was conducted at Muhabura Volcano, in Volcanoes National Park, Northern Rwanda, to determine woody species diversity and carbon stock potential of woody species along altitudinal gradients. The study area was stratified into three strata based on physical appearance of vegetation and elevation gradients: low altitude 2502-2882 m a.s.l, middle altitude which lies between 2883-3109 m a.s.l and upper altitude which lies between 3110-4127 m a.s.l. A total of 60 plots of 20m ...

DIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION STATUS OF NON-TIMBER FOREST PRODUCTS (NTFPS) IN AMIGNA DISTRICT, EAST ARSI ZONE OF OROMIA REGIONAL STATE

Abstract: This study was focused on the diversity and conservation status of non- timber forest products (NTFPs) in Sera forest with the objective of identifying and documenting diversity of plant species used as NTFPs and their conservation status. The study applied a combination of plant ecological and ethno botanical methods. A preferential systematic sampling method was used to collect vegetation data from 50 plots of 20 m x 20 m for all woody species and 2x2 m subplots inside the large ...

MODELLING SPATIO-TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF Prosopis juliflora UNDER PREDICTED CLIMATE CHANGE IN MARIGAT SUB-COUNTY, KENYA

Abstract: Prosopis juliflora is an invasive species that has caused adverse ecological, social and economic impacts in Kenya. Climate change is anticipated to aggravate the spread and invasion of this species. This is now raising concerns because further expansion of this species will worsen its negative impacts on the livelihoods of the adjacent communities, and on the ecological integrity of the invaded areas. However, there is limited understanding and knowledge on the influence of climat...

IMPACT OF ADOPTION OF SMALL-SCALE IRRIGATION ON THE LIVELIHOOD AND RESILIENCE OF SMALLHOLDER FARMERS AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE STRESSES: THE CASE OF KERSA DISTRICT, EAST HARARGHE ZONE, OROMIA

Abstract: Small-scale irrigation is one of the most useful irrigation systems designed to increase the production and productivity of smallholder farmers and protect them against the risks of crop loss due to erratic rainfall. This study was mainly intended to evaluate the impact of small-scale irrigation practices on the livelihood and resilience of smallholder farmers toward climate change stresses in Kersa district, East Hararghe Zone, Oromia. The data were collected from a sample of 288 ...

HOUSEHOLD SOLID WASTE GENERATION ,CHARACTERIZATION AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN MELKA RAFU TOWN, KOMBOLCHA DISTRICT OF EAST HARARGHE ZONE, ETHIOPIA

Abstract: Household Solid Waste Generation, characterization and Management Practices in Melka Rafu Town, Kombolcha District of East Hararghe Zone, Ethiopia The rapid increase in population together with expansion of urban centers is producing large volumes of wastes, which demand better infrastructure, institutional setup and community participation for its management. But, most of solid wastes that generated are remaining uncollected and simply dumped at open space. This study focused on i...

HOUSEHOLD SOLID WASTE GENERATION ,CHARACTERIZATION AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN MELKA RAFU TOWN, KOMBOLCHA DISTRICT OF EAST HARARGHE ZONE, ETHIOPIA

Abstract: Household Solid Waste Generation, characterization and Management Practices in Melka Rafu Town, Kombolcha District of East Hararghe Zone, Ethiopia The rapid increase in population together with expansion of urban centers is producing large volumes of wastes, which demand better infrastructure, institutional setup and community participation for its management. But, most of solid wastes that generated are remaining uncollected and simply dumped at open space. This study focused on i...

GENERATION RATE AND PHYSICO CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZTION OF HOUSEHOLD SOLID WASTE IN DEDER TOWN ADMINISTRATION, EAST HARARGHE ZONE, ETHIOPIA

Abstract: Household solid waste (HSW) has both direct and indirect effects on the environment and human welfare. This is mainly due to the lack of information on the generation rate and physico chemical characterize of the household solid waste property. So, this study aims to determine the generation rate and physico chemical properties of household solid waste in Deder town adminstration, East Hararghe zone, Ethiopia. In order to achieve this objective, soild waste data was collected from ...

BIOTRANSFORMATION OF BREWERY SLUDGE AND LANTANA CAMARA L. THROUGH VERMICOMPOSTING IN HARAMAYA DISTRICT, EAST HARARGHE ZONE, ETHIOPIA

Abstract: Biotransformation of brewery sludge and Lantana camara is a double interest, as it converts industrial waste in to useful product and helps to control invasive weeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate vermicomposting technology in the biotransformation of brewery sludge (BS) and Lantana biomass in to valuable product. Fresh (BS) was obtained from the waste water treatment plant of Harar brewery factory, which is located in Harar city. Lantana camara (LC) was collected fro...

GENERATION RATE, CHARACTERIZATION, AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IN CHIRO TOWN, EASTERN ETHIOPIA

Abstract: The most pressing environmental issue in Chiro Town is the growing amount of solid waste generated and the lack of an effective waste management system. The purpose of this study was to determine the present generation rate, physicochemical characterization, and management practices of solid waste generated by households, commercial center and government organizations in Chiro town, Oromia region, Ethiopia. The research was done on households, commercial centers and government orga...

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF IMPACT OF SOIL MIXTURE ON GROWTH AND SEEDLING QUALITY OF SELECTED AGROFORESTRY TREE SPECIES

Abstract: In the study area, there was problem of seedling quality because of degraded local soil fertility and competing interest for manure from vegetable, fruit, coffee and kahat producers. The study was focused on determining the most suitable soil amendment for germination and early seedling growth of selected indigenous multipurpose agroforestry tree species. Seedlings were raised in polythene tubes having 10cm diameter and 15cm height and the experimental plots were laid out with eigh...

WOODY SPECIES DIVERSITY, COMPOSITION AND CARBON STOCK OF OBI FOREST IN DEDER DISTRICT OF EAST HARARGHE.

Abstract: The study was conducted in Deder District of Obi forest, with the objectives of assessing the woody species diversity, composition and estimating of the carbon stock of the forest. A systematic sampling method was used to conduct the vegetation sampling. In order to collect vegetation data, a total of 36 quadrats, each with the size of 20 m x 20 m for tree, 5 m x 5 m for shrubs at an interval of 100 m, were laid along altitudinal variation. Aboveground biomass was estimated by usin...

Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste Composition and Disposal System at Transfer Stations and Landfill Sites in Dilla Town, Ethiopia

Abstract: Municipal solid waste is defined as discarded items from households, including bulky waste, waste from commerce and trade, institutions, small businesses, yard and garden, street sweepings, and market cleansing. Expansion in generation rate and quality of solid waste composition in municipalities coupled with ineffective management has led to severe environmental problems. This research was initiated to characterize the physicochemical property of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Dil...

Impact of traditional gold mining activity on composition and diversity of the Vegetation and perception of the community in kafta-sheraro national Park, north western Tigray, Ethiopia

Abstract: Gold mining brings several benefits to developing countries like Ethiopia, which could be manifested mainly as employment opportunity and income generation but simultaneously there has been high negative impact on the environment especially on the biodiversity. This study was conducted to investigate the impacts of the ongoing traditional gold mining (TGM) on the natural vegetation in the Kafta-Shiraro National Park (KSNP). A comparative vegetation analysis was conducted between th...


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