Environmental & Physical Sciences

Environmental & Physical Sciences Research Papers/Topics

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF ETHIOPIAN DEKOKO (Pisum sativum L. var. abyssinicum) LANDRACES USING INTER-SIMPLE SEQUENCE REPEAT (ISSR) MARKERS

Abstract: P. sativum L. var. abyssinicum is a marginalized, economically important and endemic, cool - season legume - crop in Ethiopia. However, no genetic diversity study has been employed using molecular markers on this crop species sofar. Therefore, this study is aimed to investigate genetic diversity and population structure of P. sativum L.var abyssinicum collected from Southern Tigray and Northern Amhara regions of Ethiopia. Six ISSR (Inter simple sequence repeat) primers were used to...

EFFECTS OF BEER FACTORY EFFLUENT DISCHARGE ON BENTHIC MACROINVERTABRATE DIVERSITY AND WATER QUALITY OF META RIVER IN SEBETA TOWN, ETHIOPIA

Abstract: The use of benthic macroinvertabrates together with physico- chemical parameters are considered as the reliable method for water quality assessment. The main objective of this study was to determine the water qualities of Meta River using biological and physico chemical parameters. One reference site which is less affected by the beer factory effluent discharge and two affected sites in the down stream were used to collect the water samples. A total of three water samples were coll...

IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON CHICKPEA (Cicer arietinum L.) PRODUCTION AND ADAPTATION OPTIONS IN ADAA DISTRICT, CENTRAL ETHIOPIA

Abstract: downscaling projected temperature and rainfall in all time periods of the century (2020s ,2050s and 2080s),under two concentration pathways (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). Similarly, DSSAT crop model was used to analyze the impacts of the projected climate change on the yields of Ejere and Natoli chickpea varieties and to evaluate adaptation options. Different planting dates were analyzed to identify best adaptation option. Simulations were done after calibrating and validating the crop mod...

OPTIMIZING BIO-ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM Striga hermonthica USING YEAST (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) AS A FERMENTING AGENT

Abstract: Global warming, urban pollution and depletion of fossil fuels have been driving for looking alternative energy sources, especially those derived from biomass. Production of bio-ethanol from lingocellulosic materials is providing a long-term sustainable for fuel supply. Striga hermonthica, a parasitic weed plant is one of cheap source of lignocellosic materials to serve as feedstock for bio-ethanol production. With the objective of evaluating its potential for bioethanol production,...

EFFECT OF VARYING TOTAL SOLIDS ON THE YIELD OF BIOGAS FROM Datura stramonium LEAVES THROUGH ANAEROBIC CO DIGESTION WITH COW MANURE

Abstract: Production of biogas through anaerobic digestion of organic waste materials provides an alternative environmentally eco-friendly renewable energy. In this study, biogas production from co-digestion of cow manure (CM) and Datura stramonium leaves (DSL) in five mix ratios (100%CM, 60%CM:40%DSL, 50%CM:50%DSL, 40%CM:60%DSL and 100%DSL) were evaluated under mesophilic condition at 38ºC using a batch mode digester over 30 days fermentation. In all the treatments, physico-chemical parame...

VEGETABLE PRODUCTION WITH WASTEWATER FROM AKAKI RIVER IN ADDIS ABABA: PERCEPTIONS, RISKS, AND LOW-COST REMEDIATION

Abstract: The use of wastewater to produce food crops particularly vegetables is very prevalent within and outside the urban centers of developing countries. In the capital city of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, where irrigation water for cultivation of vegetables is commonly derived from the polluted Akaki River, the practice has often been blamed for causing negative externalities to public health and the environment. To address these issues, the studies of this doctoral dissertation mainly focuse...

Effects of Land Use and Land Cover Changes on Soil Physicochemical Properties and Organic Carbon Stock in Shonkola Sub-Watershed, Soro District of Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia

Abstract: Land use and land cover changes have effect on soil fertility, soil organic carbon stock and soil physicochemical properties. To determine the effects of LULC on selected physicochemical properties of soil and soil organic carbon stock (SOCS) a study was conducted in soro district of Hadiya Zone at Shonkola sub watershed under different land use types. Soil samples from 0 to 15 cm and 15 to 30 cm depth were collected from three major land use types; grassland, cultivated land and f...

SOIL ACIDITY LEVELS UNDER DIFFERENT LAND USE SYSTEMS AND LIME REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DOMINANT SOIL TYPE OF SODO DACHI DISTRICT, OROMIA NATIONAL REGIONAL STATE, ETHIOPIA

Abstract: Soil acidity is one of the main factors affecting agricultural productivity in the highlands of Ethiopia. It is one of the problems that decrease the potential of arable lands for crop growth because of high rainfall in highland areas. The purpose of this study was to assess and quantify the extent of soil acidity under different land use systems and to determine the amount of lime required for neutralizing soil acidity in the study area. Three land uses (cultivated, grazing and na...

BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM ANAEROBIC MONO AND CO DIGESTION OF POULTRY MANURE AND INVASIVE WEED SPECIES (Strigahermonthica)

Abstract: Bio-fuel production from agricultural, municipal, and industrial wastes through anaerobic digestion is meant for sustainable energy supply and eco-friendly waste management. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine biogas yield using Strigahermontica as a solo substrate and co- digestion with poultry manure. The experimental analysis revealed that there was variation among the pH values of the substrates before and after anaerobic digestion. The mean pH value of the ...

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER IN WOLISO TOWN, SOUTH WEST SHOA ZONE, OROMIA, ETHIOPIA

Abstract: In Ethiopia, access to improved water supply and sanitation was estimated at 52% and 28%, respectively. Over 60-80% of the communicable diseases are arising from unsafe and inadequate water supply, poor hygiene condition and lack of regular treatment of water. This study was conducted to assess the microbial and physicochemical quality of drinking water in Woliso Town. The study was conducted from February 2016 to May 2016. A total of 51 water samples were collected from disinfecte...

CULTIVATION OF THREE SELECTED Pleurotus SPECIES USING GROWTH MEDIA PREPARED FROM SUGARCANE BAGASSE AND DRIED LEAVES OF Eichhornia crassipes AND Argemone ochroleuca

Abstract: Cultivation of edible mushrooms using agricultural invasive weeds could play a paramount role by producing foods with high nutritional value, and at the same time create environmentally friendly ways of food production. Thus, an experiment was conducted at Mushroom Research, Production and Training Laboratory of Haramaya University to cultivate three selected Pleurotus mushroom using three substrate and their combinations (dried leaves of Eichhornia crassipes (LEC) & Argemone ochro...

BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM WATER HYACINTH (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) CO-DIGESTED WITH POULTRY MANURE

Abstract: The use of renewable energy sources can contribute to solve the present and future energy problems. Among the alternative energy sources, biogas production from green energy crops and organic waste has worldwide application as it yields a good quality fuel and fermented slurry, which may be used as a manure or soil conditioner. In this study, Biogas Production from Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) Co-digestion with Poultry Manure in five mix ratios was evaluated under mesophil...

PRODUCTION OF BIOORGANIC LIQUID FERTILIZER FROM KHAT LEAVES AND ONION BULBS

Abstract: Microbial formulations for producing bioorganic liquid fertilizers are promising technology in the future. Thus, the present study was aimed to produce bioorganic liquid fertilizer from khat leaves and onion bulbs through aerobic fermentation in open containers. Macronutrient composition of bioorganic fertilizer and compost tea solutions indicated that Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and sodium (Na) were found to be significant between bioorganic liquid fertilizer and ...

BREWERY AND MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER QUALITY FOR IRRIGATION AND ITS IMPACTS ON SELECTED SOIL PROPERTIES AROUND HARAR CITY, EASTERN ETHIOPIA

Abstract: Wastewater contains a variety of chemical, physical and microbial contaminants which may significantly affect soil properties as well as ecosystem function when used for different purposes such as irrigation. Around Harar city, brewery and municipal wastewater has been in use for irrigating some crops cultivated in the area which may have impacted soil properties. The study was aimed to investigate the impacts of brewery and municipal wastewater (BMWW) on selected soil physico-chem...

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES AND ASSESSMENT OF ITS MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AT HADERO TOWN, SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

Abstract: Tremendous waste generated rapidly and creates lots of problems in developing country like Ethiopia. If these solid wastes not managed properly, these would certainly have a negative impact on sustainable living style, local environment, and human health. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess physico-chemical characterization of municipal solid wastes and assessment of its management practices. To achieve the objective, a cross-sectional descriptive survey design was...


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