Environmental & Physical Sciences

Research Papers/Topics in Environmental & Physical Sciences

Varroa-Specific Hygienic Behaviour And Population Abundance Of Varroa Destructor In Colonies Of Apis Mellifera Scutellata In Karura Forest, Kenya

ABSTRACT The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is one of the parasite globally reported affecting honeybee health and causing high colony losses. Of notable importance is the association of the mite with viruses and their transmission to honeybees which causes great harm to bees. Kenyan beekeepers have reported that bee populations have been on decline in recent years and therefore the need for research to establish whether Varroa destructor is negatively affecting honeybee survival ...

Performance Of Amaranth Accessions Against Moisture Stress And Key Insect Pests And Their Indigenous Parasitoids In Arusha, Tanzania

ABSTRACT Amaranths are African indigenous vegetables (AIVs) that have recently gained importance as a food source in Africa owing to the high nutritional value of their leaves and grains. Production of this crop is, however, limited by arthropod pests especially the lepidopteran leaf-webbers, leaf-worms and stem weevils. The use of insecticides for their management is uneconomical and also present health and environmental concerns. Host plant resistance (HPR) to insects is an effective,...

Assessment Of Stakeholder Participation In Water Resources Management In Machakos Sub-County, Machakos County, Kenya

ABSTRACTStakeholder participation has been shown to be an effective approach in increasingaccess to safe water and sanitation in many parts of the world. This studyinvestigated stakeholder participation in management of water resources inMachakos Sub-County of Machakos County, Kenya. Specifically, it sought toassess the level of community participation in water resources management,collaboration between stakeholders, stakeholder contribution in increasing accessto reliable water resourc...

Evaluation Of Urban Expansion And Its Implications On Land Use In Kiambu County, Kenya

ABSTRACTRapid urban population growth has led to not only an increasing demand for more land, more so for residential use. This land is not available within the city but at the peri-urban areas where parcels of fertile agricultural land are being converted into residential use at an alarming rate. This is because of the expanding urban area to its urban fringes that is accompanied by an increasing demand for land to accommodate the increasing urban developments. The specific objectives of the...

Relative Attractiveness Of Anopheles Gambiae Mosquitoes To Synthetic Odour Blends And Human Emanations

ABSTRACTMosquito host seeking behaviour is mediated by chemical, physical and visual cues. Identification of chemical and physical cues utilized by mosquitoes in host location can lead to the development of novel vector management strategies. This research set out to identify synthetic odour blends that simulate human body emanations that can be used to develop mass trapping devices for vector management. The relative attractiveness of human body emanations and synthetic odour blends as attra...

Impact Of Climate Variability On Selected Kipsigis Sacred Plant Species In Belgut Division, Kericho County, Kenya

ABSTRACTIndigenous plant species have salient socio-cultural significance among many peoples of Africa. In Kenya, certain plant species are important for ceremonial functions such as marriage and rites of passage. Among the Kalenjin, over 100 species are important for such functions. However, the species are relatively under threat in their occurence and abundance due to climate variations and impacts of development. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of climate change on the...

Evaluation Of Polythylene Based Long Lasting Treated Bed Nets On The Population Density Of Indoor Resting Anopheles Mosquitoes In Kanyaboli, Western- Kenya.

ABSTRACTInsecticide treated bednets have been shown to have a profound impact on malaria transmission in experimental trials in sub-saharan Africa. Their effectiveness requires frequent re-treament, however re-treament rates have rarely risen above 20%. The need for re-impregnation and the relatively short life span led to the development of long lasting insecticide bed nets (LLINs) for longer field use. Though these LLINs have shown good efficacy on malaria mosquitoes under control condition...

Suitability Of Selected Drought Tolerant Grass Species As Trap Plants For Chilo Partellus (Swinhoe) In Kisumu County, Kenya

ABSTRACTThe stem borer, Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a pest thatattacks plants in the poacea family in tropical lowland areas of Africa. Yield losses inmaize are caused by the borer feeding on plant stems, leaves, grains and tussles. It isdifficult to control C. partellus since larvae hide in stems. Spraying with insecticidesonly kills eggs and adults. Other methods used to control C. partellus includebiological, physical, geneticaland cultural methods. Trap plants are ...

The Effects Of Utilization Of Tree Products On Conservation Of Kaya Mudzimuvya Forest In Kilifi County, Kenya

ABSTRACTKaya Mudzimuvya is one of the Mijikenda sacred forests along the Kenya Coast, whose sanctity has, to some extent contributed to its conservation. However, due to gradual detachment from the Kaya culture and attempts to sustain livelihoods, these forests have continually undergone degradation. Consequently, this has tremendously reduced the forest cover thus resulting in the loss of biodiversity. This study sought to establish the relationship between the social, cu...

Effects Of Dual Inoculation With Mycorrhiza And Rhizobium On Growth Performance Of Soyabeans In Acidic Soils In Gatanga, Kenya

ABSTRACT Small land holdings and poverty in Central Kenya have made it difficult for farmers to adequately conserve and replenish soil nutrients in their farms. Soil erosion and leaching of nutrients leading to soil acidity have been the inevitable outcome. This study was designed to determine the effect of inoculating soyabeans (Glycine max) with both mycorrhiza and rhizobium as a biological means of improving soil fertility in the acidic soils in Gatanga, Thika District. Field experiments w...

Pollination And Guttation In Sweet Melon Cucumis Melo L. Grown Under Field And Greenhouse Conditions In Nairobi County, Kenya

ABSTRACTSweet melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a plant that produces a fleshy edible fruit and belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae. As an economic crop, the sweet melon is highly consumed by the urban population in Kenya. The pollination ecology of the crop is not well understood. Effective pollination is essential for fruit set and overall productivity of sweet melons. The use of pest control products can adversely impair pollination provision through direct decimation of pollinators or their repe...

Perceived Factors Influencing Deviant Behaviour Among The Youth In Njathaini Community, Nairobi, Kenya

ABSTRACTThe youth are often faced by a number of challenges that are unique. These challenges differ between developed and developing countries, with the latter facing rapid urbanization that does not match government investments in social infrastructure. Irrespective of this, the challenges predispose the youth to involvement in delinquencies the so called deviant behaviour. Recently, youth deviant behaviour has become a global issue of great concern and requires immediate attention. Develop...

Role Of Women Farmers In Household Food Security In Mpeketoni Location, Lamu County, Kenya

ABSTRACTWomen play a vital role in food production, however, little has been documented about their role in food security for their households despite their efforts in food production. The purpose of the study was to assess the role of women in household food security in Mpeketoni Location, Lamu County, Kenya. The objectives of the study were: to identify the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of women farmers; to determine farming inputs used by women farmers; to establish the far...

Socio-Economic Constraints To Community Participation In Rural Water Management In Ndarugu-Thiririka Sub-Catchment, Athi Basin, Kenya

ABSTRACT In rural areas, water availability in the right quantity and quality is an important step towards achieving socio-economic development. Thus, the provision of sustainable water supply has been a central issue in Kenya with priority on low-income rural communities and underdeveloped areas with poor water resources. This has forced many rural communities to embrace community management model in rural water systems. However, despite continued large-scale investment by the governme...

Effects Of Land Use On Spring And Streamflow Water Quality In River Malaget Sub-Catchment, Kericho County, Kenya

ABSTRACT Various studies have shown that land use impacts on water quality are attributable to about 80 % of diseases in the developing world. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of land use on water quality in River Malaget sub-catchment. The specific objectives were to: i) establish spring and streamflow water quality; ii) determine the water quality index of the selected sampling points and iii) evaluate the relationship between spring and streamflow water qua...


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