Environmental & Physical Sciences

Environmental & Physical Sciences Research Papers/Topics

LAND USE LAND COVER DYNAMICS, LAND DEGRADATION AND POTENTIAL FOR SUSTAINABLE USE OF NATURAL RESOURCES UNDER MIXED CROP-LIVESTOCK FARMING SYSTEM IN GALESSA WATERSHED AND THE SURROUNDINGS IN TH

Abstract: Land degradation is a global, ongoing and relentless problem diminishing the functions and services provided by land resources. The problem is most serious in tropical regions, high in population density and mainly dependent on subsistence agriculture. Ethiopia can be viewed as a vivid example of countries in these regions most affected by land degradation. Although its extent varies, the problem is widespread in all regions of the country. The highlands, originally endowed with ab...

PRODUCTION OF BIOGAS FROM ANAEROBIC CO-DIGESTION OF CORN COB WITH COW DUNG

Abstract: Production of biogas through anaerobic digestion of organic waste materials provides an alternative environmentally friendly renewable energy. In this study, biogas production from codigestion of corn cob with cow dung in five mix ratios was evaluated under mesophilic condition (38ºC) using a batch digester for 30 days. In all substrates, VS, organic carbon, pH and C: N ratios were measured before and after digestion. The Parameters studied were total solids (TS), volatile solids ...

CULTIVATION OF EDIBLE OYSTER MUSHROOMS (Pleurotus ostreatus AND Pleurotus sajor-caju) USING SOME SELECTED AGRICULTURAL WASTE SUBSTRATES (COTTON SEED, KHAT LEFT OVER AND SPENT COFFEE GROUND)

Abstract: Cultivation of edible mushrooms is one of the strategies of production of protein-rich food with the reduction of environmental pollution with full use of all materials in which nothing left as waste. In view of this, an experiment was conducted to evaluate substrates and substrate combination (Cotton seed (CS), khat left over (KL) and spent Coffee Ground (CG)) for oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus sajor-caju) cultivation at Mushroom Research, Production and Train...

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF ETHIOPIAN DEKOKO (Pisum sativum L. var. abyssinicum) LANDRACES USING INTER-SIMPLE SEQUENCE REPEAT (ISSR) MARKERS

Abstract: P. sativum L. var. abyssinicum is a marginalized, economically important and endemic, cool - season legume - crop in Ethiopia. However, no genetic diversity study has been employed using molecular markers on this crop species sofar. Therefore, this study is aimed to investigate genetic diversity and population structure of P. sativum L.var abyssinicum collected from Southern Tigray and Northern Amhara regions of Ethiopia. Six ISSR (Inter simple sequence repeat) primers were used to...

EFFECTS OF BEER FACTORY EFFLUENT DISCHARGE ON BENTHIC MACROINVERTABRATE DIVERSITY AND WATER QUALITY OF META RIVER IN SEBETA TOWN, ETHIOPIA

Abstract: The use of benthic macroinvertabrates together with physico- chemical parameters are considered as the reliable method for water quality assessment. The main objective of this study was to determine the water qualities of Meta River using biological and physico chemical parameters. One reference site which is less affected by the beer factory effluent discharge and two affected sites in the down stream were used to collect the water samples. A total of three water samples were coll...

IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON CHICKPEA (Cicer arietinum L.) PRODUCTION AND ADAPTATION OPTIONS IN ADAA DISTRICT, CENTRAL ETHIOPIA

Abstract: downscaling projected temperature and rainfall in all time periods of the century (2020s ,2050s and 2080s),under two concentration pathways (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). Similarly, DSSAT crop model was used to analyze the impacts of the projected climate change on the yields of Ejere and Natoli chickpea varieties and to evaluate adaptation options. Different planting dates were analyzed to identify best adaptation option. Simulations were done after calibrating and validating the crop mod...

OPTIMIZING BIO-ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM Striga hermonthica USING YEAST (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) AS A FERMENTING AGENT

Abstract: Global warming, urban pollution and depletion of fossil fuels have been driving for looking alternative energy sources, especially those derived from biomass. Production of bio-ethanol from lingocellulosic materials is providing a long-term sustainable for fuel supply. Striga hermonthica, a parasitic weed plant is one of cheap source of lignocellosic materials to serve as feedstock for bio-ethanol production. With the objective of evaluating its potential for bioethanol production,...

EFFECT OF VARYING TOTAL SOLIDS ON THE YIELD OF BIOGAS FROM Datura stramonium LEAVES THROUGH ANAEROBIC CO DIGESTION WITH COW MANURE

Abstract: Production of biogas through anaerobic digestion of organic waste materials provides an alternative environmentally eco-friendly renewable energy. In this study, biogas production from co-digestion of cow manure (CM) and Datura stramonium leaves (DSL) in five mix ratios (100%CM, 60%CM:40%DSL, 50%CM:50%DSL, 40%CM:60%DSL and 100%DSL) were evaluated under mesophilic condition at 38ºC using a batch mode digester over 30 days fermentation. In all the treatments, physico-chemical parame...

VEGETABLE PRODUCTION WITH WASTEWATER FROM AKAKI RIVER IN ADDIS ABABA: PERCEPTIONS, RISKS, AND LOW-COST REMEDIATION

Abstract: The use of wastewater to produce food crops particularly vegetables is very prevalent within and outside the urban centers of developing countries. In the capital city of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, where irrigation water for cultivation of vegetables is commonly derived from the polluted Akaki River, the practice has often been blamed for causing negative externalities to public health and the environment. To address these issues, the studies of this doctoral dissertation mainly focuse...

Effects of Land Use and Land Cover Changes on Soil Physicochemical Properties and Organic Carbon Stock in Shonkola Sub-Watershed, Soro District of Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia

Abstract: Land use and land cover changes have effect on soil fertility, soil organic carbon stock and soil physicochemical properties. To determine the effects of LULC on selected physicochemical properties of soil and soil organic carbon stock (SOCS) a study was conducted in soro district of Hadiya Zone at Shonkola sub watershed under different land use types. Soil samples from 0 to 15 cm and 15 to 30 cm depth were collected from three major land use types; grassland, cultivated land and f...

SOIL ACIDITY LEVELS UNDER DIFFERENT LAND USE SYSTEMS AND LIME REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DOMINANT SOIL TYPE OF SODO DACHI DISTRICT, OROMIA NATIONAL REGIONAL STATE, ETHIOPIA

Abstract: Soil acidity is one of the main factors affecting agricultural productivity in the highlands of Ethiopia. It is one of the problems that decrease the potential of arable lands for crop growth because of high rainfall in highland areas. The purpose of this study was to assess and quantify the extent of soil acidity under different land use systems and to determine the amount of lime required for neutralizing soil acidity in the study area. Three land uses (cultivated, grazing and na...

BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM ANAEROBIC MONO AND CO DIGESTION OF POULTRY MANURE AND INVASIVE WEED SPECIES (Strigahermonthica)

Abstract: Bio-fuel production from agricultural, municipal, and industrial wastes through anaerobic digestion is meant for sustainable energy supply and eco-friendly waste management. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine biogas yield using Strigahermontica as a solo substrate and co- digestion with poultry manure. The experimental analysis revealed that there was variation among the pH values of the substrates before and after anaerobic digestion. The mean pH value of the ...

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER IN WOLISO TOWN, SOUTH WEST SHOA ZONE, OROMIA, ETHIOPIA

Abstract: In Ethiopia, access to improved water supply and sanitation was estimated at 52% and 28%, respectively. Over 60-80% of the communicable diseases are arising from unsafe and inadequate water supply, poor hygiene condition and lack of regular treatment of water. This study was conducted to assess the microbial and physicochemical quality of drinking water in Woliso Town. The study was conducted from February 2016 to May 2016. A total of 51 water samples were collected from disinfecte...

CULTIVATION OF THREE SELECTED Pleurotus SPECIES USING GROWTH MEDIA PREPARED FROM SUGARCANE BAGASSE AND DRIED LEAVES OF Eichhornia crassipes AND Argemone ochroleuca

Abstract: Cultivation of edible mushrooms using agricultural invasive weeds could play a paramount role by producing foods with high nutritional value, and at the same time create environmentally friendly ways of food production. Thus, an experiment was conducted at Mushroom Research, Production and Training Laboratory of Haramaya University to cultivate three selected Pleurotus mushroom using three substrate and their combinations (dried leaves of Eichhornia crassipes (LEC) & Argemone ochro...

BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM WATER HYACINTH (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) CO-DIGESTED WITH POULTRY MANURE

Abstract: The use of renewable energy sources can contribute to solve the present and future energy problems. Among the alternative energy sources, biogas production from green energy crops and organic waste has worldwide application as it yields a good quality fuel and fermented slurry, which may be used as a manure or soil conditioner. In this study, Biogas Production from Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) Co-digestion with Poultry Manure in five mix ratios was evaluated under mesophil...


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