Environmental & Physical Sciences

Research Papers/Topics in Environmental & Physical Sciences

Types of Natural Resources in Selected African Countries

Natural Resources are assets or materials created and deposited by nature, useable by man to create wealth. In another definition, Natural resources are naturally occurring materials that are useful to man or could be useful under conceivable technological, economic or social circumstances or supplies drawn from the earth. Common examples of Natural Resources include Air, Sunlight, Water, Soil, Stone, Plants, Forests, Animals and Fossil fuels. Africa has a large quantity of Nat...

The Effects Of Population Pressure On Tue Agricultural Lands; Of Trika Area Thika District.

ABSTRACTAn investigation of the effects of population pressure on the agricultural lands wasconducted in Thika area Thika district.The variables considered include; causes of population growth, effects of populationgrowth on agricultural lands and solutions for the effects of population growth onagricultural lands.In order to investigate the above variables, a general survey research design was used.Data collection tools include; interview schedule, observation checklist, literature rev...

Assessing Water Supply And Demand Management In Industries And Commercial Enterprises In Athi River Town, Machakos County

Water is an integral part of many industrial processes and increasing demand for water for industrial uses will result from increasing economic activity.The water resources upon which industrial growth depends are under increasing stress and almost no economy will be spared the negative consequences of unsustainable use of this scarce resource. This study was designed to assess how industries and commercial enterprises in Athi River Town are managing water as a resource. It reviewed the...

Assessment Of Community Forest Associations In Socioeconomic Empowerment Of Communities In Kinangop, Nyandarua County

Participatory Forest Management is a framework that has widely been adopted in management of forests because it includes community and other stakeholders in forest management. The Forest Act (2005) provided way in which PFM would be implemented in Kenya to provide a solution to the problems facing the forestry sector. It provided an opportunity for the community to participate in the management of the forest through co-management of the forest with KFS using Community Forest Association...

Assessment Of Small-Scale Water Harvesting And Saving Technologies And Their Application In Mitaboni Location, Machakos County

Water scarcity remains a major development challenge in Kenya and particularly in the Arid and Semi-Arid lands (ASALs) like the Machakos County. Existence of few dams like Muooni dam, near the Kathiani market, has failed to deliver sustainable supply of water to the Mitaboni residents. Despite the emergence of small-scale water harvesting technologies, 54% of the households in Mitaboni still take more than one hour to carry water to their homes. This study sought to assess the existing ...

Spatial Analysis Of Trees Outside Forests As Influenced By Land Use Categories In River Sio Basin, Kenya

Increasing population in the developing world and associated needs for agricultural production, human settlement and industrialization have led to massive destruction of tree resources through deforestation and degradation of tree landscape. Countries have restricted access to forest resources by establishing forest reserves, causing communities to depend widely on Trees Outside the Forest (TOF). Therefore, TOF are diminishing and with them their protective and productive functions due ...

Adoption Of Biomass Briquettes As Alternative Source Of Energy In Maasai-Mau Region, Narok County, Kenya

Climate change phenomenal is a trend that impacts the local communities by affecting their way of life. High demand for wood products to meet the demand of energy supply in Maasai-Mau region has seen the depletion of the forest cover thus increasing carbon dioxide emission and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. However, there is no extensive research on the benefits of alternative sources of energy like solar, biogas and biomass briquette in mitigating these impacts. The study ...

Dynamics Of Agricultural Developments Impacting On Biodiversity Conservation In Meru National Park, Kenya

Meru National Park has witnessed a steady immigration of agricultural households from nearby high potential agro-ecological zones into its buffer zones. The situation has subjected natural habitats that formerly served as communal grazing lands and wildlife dispersal areas to fragmentation and alteration. To date, the most affected zones are wetlands of the western and southern buffer zones. These zones are most critical for livestock and wildlife, particularly as dry season grazing ar...

Potential Payment For Ecosystem Services (Pes) Scheme In Lake Ol Bolossat Nyandarwa County

The state of the world’s waters remains fragile and the need for an integrated and sustainable approach to water resource management is as pressing as ever. Available supplies are under great duress as a result of high population growth, unsustainable consumption patterns, poor management practices, pollution, and inadequate investment in infrastructure and low efficiency in water-use. Wetlands which considered biologically diverse areas are sources of water that are also under threat...

The Role Of Environmental Conservation On Survival Of Indigenous Medicinal Knowledge In Meru County, Kenya

Human activites have shaped the world over the years. Survival instincts prompted early man to explore his immediate natural surroundings and try many plants, animal products and minerals to develop a variety of therapeutical agents. W.H.O currently encourages, recommends and promotes research and inclusion of herbal drugs into national health care programmes. Indiscriminate destruction of forests and wood lands has led to reducing biodiversity that is increasingly causing disappearance...

Wastewater Management: A Case Of Reducing Wastewater Release Into Environment In Mathare North, Nairobi County

This project reinforces waste water management in a holistic manner in order to have a minimal impact of waste water to the environment. This includes sources of water for use to disposal of used water in Mathare North and link between wastewater management in Mathare North in relation to Nairobi as a whole and globally in order to develop mechanisms to help address wastewater management. The project also explores potentials and challenges of wastewater management in Mathare North with...

Determination Of Neonicotinoid Residues In Hive Products From Kiambu And Nairobi Counties, Kenya

Information on pesticide residue occurrence in hive products is scanty or lacking yet it is important so as to safeguard human health from effects of pesticides. The aim of the study was to identify and quantify neonicotinoid residues in hive products. The study was undertaken for 6 months between (March-August, 2015) at Kiambu and Nairobi Counties. The objectives of the study were to find out the pesticides used in the cultivation of crops, the frequency of use and the concentration of...

Climate Change Effects On Food Security And Coping Strategies By Women Groups In Gikindu Division, Kiharu Sub County, Murang’a County, Kenya

The study sought to find out the climate change effects on food security, and the community coping strategies in Gikindu Division in Murang’a County. The study was in response to the profound climate change effects over the years leading to depressed rainfall and increased temperatures exposing the farmers to the risk of diminished returns from the production activities. Gikindu area sits on a low agro-ecological zone five and six which is prone to persistent crop failure attributed t...

Risk Of Agrochemicals On The Environment And Human Health- In Mukaro Location, Nyeri County, Kenya

Agriculture sector in Kenya has remained pivotal to the national economy with a direct relationship between its performance and overall national economic growth. Agricultural production is nonetheless constrained by various diseases, insect pests, and low soil fertility thus necessitating mitigation by use of agrochemicals which are, however, potentially harmful to man and the environment.  The broad objective of this research was to assess the human and environmental health risks ...

Assessment Of Household Solid Waste Management In Makina Informal Settlements, Nairobi Kenya

The purpose of this study was to assess the household management of domestic solid waste in the Makina area informal settlements, Kibera division of Nairobi city. This is because of the increasing sites of unattended solid wastes in its public places. The objectives of the study were: To establish the types of domestic solid waste generated in Makina area; to evaluate the effectiveness of the solid waste management at the household level and to examine the role-played by s...


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