Environmental & Physical Sciences

Environmental & Physical Sciences Research Papers/Topics

Impacts of expansion of agriculture and land use change on flow regime of Thiba river, Kenya

Abstract: Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to model the impacts of land cover changes on stream flow regime in the Thiba River basin a sub-catchment of Tana River Basin covering a surface area of 1648 km2 in central region of Kenya. The basin is characterized by intensive agricultural activities including the largest rice irrigation scheme in Kenya. A study was undertaken to test the capability of the model in predicting stream flow response under changing land use conditions i...

Assessment of land use and land cover change in Makueni County for selected time periods

Abstract: The surface of the earth is undergoing rapid land use and land cover changes (LULCC) due to various socio-economic activities and natural phenomena. The main aim of this study was to gain a quantitative understanding of LULCC in Makueni County between 2000 and 2016, and analyze the relationship between these changes and their possible underlying drivers in the County. ArcGIS 10.3.1 and ERDAS IMAGINE 2014 were used for the digital image processing and GIS analyses. Image pre-process...

Suitability of Athi River water for irrigation within Athi River town and its environs

Abstract: The main aim of this study was to assess the suitability of the Athi River water for irrigation in Athi River area and its environs. The study area was within Athi River and Muthwani ward within Mavoko Constituency and in Machakos County, Kenya. Seven sampling points were selected along the study transect (about 8 km) and sampling was done once every week from 21 st January to 6 th March 2015 (dry season). The water samples collected were analyzed for selected physico-chemical and ...

Environmental effects on the circadian systems of a diurnal ( rhabdomys dilectus) and noctural (micaelamys namaquensis) rodent species with specific reference to light pollution

Abstract: The presence of artificial light at night (ALAN) is one of many contributing factors to global change today. The spectral range of ALAN can also alter the potential effects of light pollution in certain contexts which creates an exceptionally complex cascade of impacts. The purpose of this thesis was to examine the interactions of various environmental factors including ALAN on biological variables, locomotor activity and corticosterone concentration, of two species of rodent. This...

Influence of light pollution and biodiversity awareness on hawkmoth (lepidoptera: sphingidae) diversity and abundance in selected sites in Kenya

Abstract: Light pollution is a key biodiversity threat and is defined as one of the global environmental problems threatening key species to extinction and posing a major challenge to biodiversity conservation. The absence of stringent law, good practice and nonexistent environmental standards on light pollution has been a major drawback to management of its effects on biodiversity. This study sought to establish the influence of light pollution and biodiversity awareness on hawk moth divers...

Dung beetle activity improves soil properties and plant growth of reclaimed mined land

Abstract: Mining activities greatly contribute to economic growth and development in South Africa. However, post-mining soils have limited land-use potential due to low fertility, deficiency in organic matter content and poor physical, chemical, and microbiological properties. Mechanical methods to improve soil conditions, such as ripping, are expensive and provide temporary improvements. Alternatively, exploring biological methods could aid in creating arable land from degraded soils, where...

Reproduction in the spotted hyaena crocuta crocuta (Erxleben)

Abstract:  The reproductive biology of spotted hyaenas was studied from a sample of 39 females and 36 males collected in game reserves in south~rn Africa. A method for age estimation, based on the relative attrition of PM2 was developed. Female spotted hyaenas attain sexual maturity at three years of age, are polyoestrus with recurring oestrous cycles throughout the lactation period. Females were still reproducing when 16 years old. Breeding was not restricted to a particular season, as bi...

Assessing the role of eco-rating certification scheme in promoting responsible tourism

Abstract: Mass tourism as the dominant form of tourism practice has for decades caused environmental, socio-economic and cultural impacts to tourist destinations. Responsible tourism which is underpinned by sound environmental, social and economic principles, offers a way to mitigate the impacts of conventional tourism. Certification as a toolhelps set standards, put benchmarks to be met by tourism actors and has been one of the strategies used to reduce these impacts. Certification is belie...

Assessment of public-private partnership for solid waste management in Wote town, Makueni county Kenya

Abstract: Wote is a town in Eastern Kenya, Makueni County . Wote serves as the headq uarter of Makueni County and has a population of 9,875. The town has been experiencing rapid population growth. An increase in solid waste is observed due to increase in urbanization, population density and inco me, changing food habits, taste and pattern. T his study aimed at providing an alternative solution to the existing Solid Waste Management (SWM) systems . The study set out to investigate how Public ...

Land user based land degradation and livelihoods assessment: application in sustainable management of Lake Naivasha -Kenya

Abstract: The study was carried out to determine the effectiveness of using a land user based land degradation and livelihood assessment approach, with the overall aim of improving the sustainable management of Lake Naivasha. The study focused on two sub-catchments of Wanjohi and Turasha within the Lake Basin. A cross-sectional survey was selected for this study to allow for triangulation on information collected and to be able to infer the results from the sample to the larger population. T...

Drivers of land use change in the Drakensberg Mountains South Africa

Abstract: Change in land use has had major impacts on natural resources. Mountain terrains and their associated natural resources are especially vulnerable to extensive changes in land use. We evaluated climate, demographic and socio-economic changes for two study areas in the Drakensberg Mountains, as possible drivers of land use change in each study area. The most notable change in land use within the study areas was the increase in urban areas despite the fact that the study areas are loc...

The development of an approach for the production and use of algae to treat urban wastewater

Abstract: The presence of huge quantities of nutrients in water bodies heavily promotes the growth of algae. Excess nitrogen and phosphorus in discharged wastewaters can lead to downstream eutrophication thereby damaging the ecosystem. Algae bioremediation involves the use of live algae in the removal of excess dissolved nutrients from wastewater and subsequently diminish the pollution load. It is an alternative economical and sustainable way of treating sewage wastewater compared to convent...

Host-parasite interactions of two sympatric small mammals from South Africa

Abstract: Patterns of ectoparasite burden among hosts can be linked to differences in abiotic (i.e. climatic conditions) and biotic (i.e. host characteristics) factors. Although this is well documented for small mammals in the northern hemisphere, similar data for southern Africa, particularly South Africa, is scant. In addition, interspecific interactions in parasite communities may contribute to the distribution of parasites across a host population, however, they are not fully understood ...

Licuati forest reserve, Mozambique : flora, utilization and conservation

Abstract: A floristic study of the Thicket vegetation in the Licmiti Forest Reserve, southern Mozambique, was undertaken. Observations on the structure and range of this unique vegetation type, its species composition, level of endemism and utilisation are provided. A literature review of the physical environment, soils, climate, vegetation and flora, as well as historical background, is presented. The Licuati Thicket covers an area of about 14 000 ha, which is about 35% of the 40 000 ha cov...

Addressing the expectations gap between corporate environmental performance communication and an affected community’s needs : with reference to organisations situated in markman township and

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify and address an expectations gap in the environmental-performance information between a community that believes it is being polluted and the organisations from a nearby industrial area. The study has consisted of a literature survey and a field study. The field study comprised a survey among the residents in Bluewater Bay, and a similar survey amongst the organisations in Markman Township. These areas were chosen because there is a history o...


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