Environmental & Physical Sciences

Environmental & Physical Sciences Research Papers/Topics

Cannibalism, oviposition and egg development in the edible long-horned grasshopper, Ruspolia differens (Orthoptera Tettigoniidae) under laboratory conditions

Abstract: Reliance on seasonal wild harvests of the edible long-horned grasshopper Ruspolia differens (Serville) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) needs to be broken through developing efficient mass rearing protocols. This study aimed at boosting productivity of laboratory colonies of R. differens through understanding ways of minimising cannibalism, selecting suitable oviposition substrates and enhancing egg development and hatchability. Firstly, we investigated the extent of cannibalism in a co...

Antifeedant and ovicidal activities of a new cassane and other compounds from Caesalpinia welwitschiana Oliv. and Caesalpinia bonduc L. against Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

Abstract: Methanolic extracts of liana of Caesalpinia welwitschiana and leaves of C. bonduc were found to possess moderate antifeedant and ovicidal activities against Tuta absoluta. Bioassay-guided isolation of constituents from the most active fraction of C. welwitschiana led to the identification of four known compounds [isobonducellin 1a and bonducellin 1 b, intricatinol 2, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate 4] and one new constituent [welwitschianic acid 3]. The most active fraction of C. ...

Nutritional composition of black soldier fly larvae feeding on agro-industrial by-products

Abstract: Black soldier fly (BSF) larvae, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), bio-convert organic side streams into high-quality biomass, the composition of which largely depends on the side stream used.In the present study, BSF larvae were reared on feed substrates composed of dried brewers’ spent grains, each supplemented with either water, waste brewer’s yeast, or a mixture of waste brewer’s yeast and cane molasses to obtain 12 different substrates: barley/water, barley/y...

Forum paper: Insect chemical ecology: Chemically mediated interactions and novel applications in agriculture

Abstract: Insect chemical ecology (ICE) evolved as a discipline concerned with plant–insect interactions, and also with a strong focus on intraspecific pheromone-mediated communication. Progress in this field has rendered a more complete picture of how insects exploit chemical information in their surroundings in order to survive and navigate their world successfully. Simultaneously, this progress has prompted new research questions about the evolution of insect chemosensation and related ...

Efficiency of food-based attractants for monitoring tephritid fruit flies diversity and abundance in mango systems across three West African agro-ecological zones.

Abstract: Food baits are effective and widely used tools for monitoring diversity and abundance of tephritid fruit flies. Four food-baits-Nulure, BioLure, Mazoferm at 3 and 6%, and Torula yeast-were used in multi-lure traps over a 4-yr period in mango orchards in three Benin agro-ecological zones (AEZ) representing a large swath of environments in western Africa. Twelve tephritid fruit fly species were captured during the trials, with the highest richness in the Forest Savannah Mosaic (FSM),...

Farmers’ knowledge and management practices of cereal, legume and vegetable insect pests, and willingness to pay for biopesticides.

Abstract: We utilized data from cereal, legume, and vegetable growers in Kenya and Uganda to assess their knowledge and management practices of common pests and willingness to pay (WTP) for biopesticides. The contingent valuation method was used to assess the WTP and associated factors among 600 and 700 farmers in Kenya and Uganda, respectively. Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) was reported as the major maize pest in both countries, while aphids (Aphis spp.) and Tuta absoluta were ranke...

Impact of integrated fruit fly management strategy on food security among smallholder mango farmers in Kenya.

Abstract: Adoption of agricultural innovations is perceived as a key avenue for poverty reduction and improved food and nutritional security in developing countries. The International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology (icipe) has developed and implemented a set of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategiesin several sub-Saharan African countries aimed at controlling mango infesting fruit flies (Bactrocera dorsalis). Although positive returns from the use of fruit fly IPM have already...

Potential of resampled multispectral data for detecting desmodium–brachiaria intercropped with maize in a ‘push-pull’ system.

Abstract: Poor crop yields remain one of the main causes of chronic food insecurity in Africa. This is largely caused by insect pests, weeds, unfavourable climatic conditions and degraded soils. Weed and pest control, based on the climate-adapted ‘push-pull’ system, has become an important target for sustainable intensification of food production adopted by many small-holder farmers. However, essential baseline information using remotely sensed data is missing, specifically for the ‘pu...

Integrated management of Aphis craccivora in cowpea using intercropping and entomopathogenic fungi under field conditions.

Abstract: Cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora, is a major cowpea pest. Cowpea–cereal intercrop alone does not effectively manage the pest. Use of pesticides in intercrop leads to health and environmental risks. Fungal-based biopesticides offer a better option because they are environment- and consumer-friendly. This study assessed the combined effect of Metarhizium anisopliae ICIPE 62 and cowpea–maize intercrop against A. craccivora under six treatments: (1) untreated cowpea monocrop, (2) unt...

Health and environmental effects of adopting an integrated fruit fly management strategy among mango farmers in Kenya

Abstract: Integrated pest management (IPM) has been promoted globally as an alternative approach to the widespread broad-spectrum chemical insecticidal application for the control of pests and diseases in agricultural production to minimise the harmful effects of the chemicals on humans and the environment. This study examines the impact of an IPM strategy developed to control mango fruit flies on humans and the environment. Using a random sample of 371 mango farmers from Meru County in Keny...

Comparative genomic analysis of six Glossina genomes, vectors of African trypanosomes

Abstract: Background: Tsetse flies (Glossina sp.) are the vectors of human and animal trypanosomiasis throughout subSaharan Africa. Tsetse flies are distinguished from other Diptera by unique adaptations, including lactation and the birthing of live young (obligate viviparity), a vertebrate blood-specific diet by both sexes, and obligate bacterial symbiosis. This work describes the comparative analysis of six Glossina genomes representing three sub-genera: Morsitans (G. morsitans morsitans, ...

Egg-laying decisions based on olfactory cues enhance offspring fitness in Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

Abstract: Selection of oviposition substrate is critical in holometabolous insects. Female stable fies, Stomoxys calcitrans, locate and select vertebrate herbivore dung in which they lay their eggs. However, the preference for vertebrate herbivore dung by S. calcitrans females, its ftness consequences for ofspring, and the semiochemicals used to locate and select oviposition substrates remain unclear. Using oviposition choice tests and life table bioassays we found that gravid female S. calc...

Performance of a Metarhizium anisopliae-treated semiochemical-baited trap in reducing Amblyomma variegatum populations in the field

Abstract: Experiments were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.)Sorok. (Ascomycota: Hypocreales)-treated semiochemical-baited traps for control of Amblyomma variegatum Fabriscius (Acari: Ixodidae) under field conditions. Unfed A. variegatum adults (118) were seeded in each 100-m plot and allowed to acclimatise for 3 days. On the fourth day (Day 4), an emulsifiable formulation of M. anisopliae (consisting of 49.5% sterile distilled water, fungal conidia, 49....

Empirical modeling of the impact of climate change on altitudinal shift of major cereal crops in South Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

Abstract: Climate change is expected to alter the growing conditions of agricultural crops. With increasing surface temperature, future suitable areas for crop production will see an altitude shift. Such shift is an adaptation response of crops to climate change. However, in the study area there are a limited number of studies that have dealt with geographical shifts of crops caused by climate change. This study was conducted with the aim of assessing impacts of climate change on altitudinal...

Τhe complete mitochondrial genomes of Ceratitis rosa and Ceratitis quilicii, members of the Ceratitis FAR species complex (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Abstract: Ceratitis FAR is an African species complex comprising insect pests of great economic interest and obscure species limits. Here, we report the mitochondrial genomes of two members of the FAR com-plex, namely Ceratitis rosa and the recently characterized Ceratitis quilicii. A phylogenetic analysis based on PCGs of available Tephritidae mitogenomes is presented. The current mitochondrial sequen- ces from the FAR complex could contribute toward the resolution of phylogenetic relations...


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