Environmental & Physical Sciences

Environmental & Physical Sciences Research Papers/Topics

Effect of salt harvesting on ground water quality in Gongoni, Kilifi county

Abstract: Fresh water is essential for the existence and development of any community. In Gongoni, Kilifi County, groundwater forms the primary source of fresh water. The presence of salt harvesting activities in the area and the concentration of pit latrines within their vicinity pose major pollution risks to these water sources. Salt harvesting ponds, which play a key role in concentrating sea water during the salt harvesting process, have a potential of affecting the quality of ground wat...

Environmental effects and health risks associated with the location of Kalundu dumpsite, Kitui county to local residents

Abstract: The rapid growth of urban centres of developing countries has created challenging problems in waste management. This problem is exacerbated by resource constraints, extreme poverty, lack of practical waste management policies, and the inability of local authorities to provide for this basic function. Waste disposal onto dumpsites located in close proximity to human settlements is a challenge to the local inhabitants. In Kitui, generated waste is dumped in Kalundu, located in a resi...

Assessing the utilization and socio – economic impacts of Osyris lanceolata (hochst & steudel) and associated environmental degradation in Kitui county

Abstract: Arid and Semi-arid lands (ASALs) in Kenya are rich in diversity of indigenous plants that have the potential to supply marketable commodities on a sustainable basis such as gums, resins and essential oils, among others. In the recent past there has been rampant unsustainable harvesting of Osyris lanceolata in Kenya to produce raw material to support manufacturing industries. The objectives of this study were to map out O. lanceolata growing zones in targeted sub – counties, asses...

Horn of Africa Drought: The Science of Climate Change and Future Impacts on Food Security

Abstract: In the recent years it has become clear that climate change is an inevitable process and a growing concern for many regions in the world. In the Horn of Africa especially, the expectation is that climate change will have negative impacts on the livelihoods due to existing vulnerabilities of the population. A cursory view of many regions in the world reveals the existing albeit critical relationship between climate change and food security. Climate change is already affecting all di...

Natural radioactivity levels in rocks and sand from Tyaa River in Mwingi, Kitui County

Abstract: The variability of background radiation from primordial radionuclides has led to the exposure of human beings to radiation doses of different ranges. Prompt or delayed harmful effects as a result of radiation exposure have been reported in areas with enhanced levels of radioactivity. The residents of Kitui County near Tyaa River and the surrounding regions heavily mine sand and rocks from its riverine for construction purposes despite the scanty information on the potential harm in...

Contribution of forest provisioning ecosystem services to livelihoods of smallholder farmers adjacent Chyulu hills forest

Abstract: Forests are believed to play critical ecological, social, cultural, and economic role to the livelihoods of smallholder farmers in Kenya and even all over the world. Forestry Provisioning Ecosystem Services (FPES) contribute significantly to smallholder farmers‘ livelihoods though this contribution is sometimes not accounted for. Understanding the role played by FPES to the livelihood of smallscale farmers is crucial for sustainable management of the forest resources. This study ...

Assessment of household domestic waste management practices, Kiambu county- Kenya

Abstract: This study was carried out to access household domestic waste management practices, perceptions and attitudes, Kiambu County. Household waste is one of the basic services that are currently receiving wide attention in the urban agenda of developing Countries. Lack of effective Household domestic Waste Management has resulted in environmental health hazards and negative impacts on the environment. The study specific objectives were : To document household waste management practices ...

Sustainable utilization of woodfuel in selected rural sites of Mwala sub-county, Machakos County, Kenya

Abstract: Many of the rural households use traditional stoves which have low energy efficiency leading to wastage of wood fuel. This study focused on understanding the sustainable utilization of wood fuel in two (2) sub-locations namely Mwala and Kibauni. The primary objective of this study was to establish if wood fuel utilization styles by the households in the study areas is sustainable. The specific objectives of the study were to: document the types of cooking stoves used by households ...

Impacts of Pollution on the Feeding, Bioturbation and Biomass of the Fiddler Crab, Uca annulipes (H. Milne Edwards) in Gazi and Mikindani Mangroves, Kenya.

Abstract: Marine pollution is one of the main anthropogenic factors identified globally to affect the estuarine and coastal ecosystems. One of the recipients of pollutants is the mangroves since they are intercepting between land and ocean. In recent years, the mangrove forests have been proposed for use as natural wastewater treatment wetlands. This is based on research findings conducted in countries like China. However, before promoting the use of natural mangrove as pollution buffers, th...

Streamflow variability and sediment yield in North-West upper Tana basin, Kenya

Abstract: The main objective of the study was to determine how river discharge and sediment yield in the basin is influenced by variations in rainfall and land use land cover change. The study was based on the analysis of hydrological and meteorological data archived by the Water Resources Authority (WRA) and the Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD), respectively. The river discharge, Total Suspended Sediment Concentration (TSSC) and sediment yield data was collected from established river ...

Entomopathogenic nematode interactions with white grubs from forest and sugarcane plantations

Abstract: In South Africa, white grubs are important pests of sugarcane and wattle. There is need for a sustainable management alternative since their control has mainly been through the use of chemical insecticides. Such alternatives can include the use of entomopathogenic nematodes, EPNs. A review of the available literature revealed that EPNs can potentially provide a higher percentage control of white grubs, when compared to chemical insecticides. However, this control efficacy is charac...

Water pollution in a Riparian community: the case of River Athi in Makueni County, Kenya

Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of water pollution on riparian community along River Athi in Makueni County. Specific objectives included; documenting the causes of pollution of the River Athi in Kathonzweni Sub County, to establish the health effects resulting from the pollution of the River Athi and finally to assess and document interventions put in place by the government and residents in the study area to control the pollution of the River Athi. Data was col...

Ant diversity and body size patterns across an altitudinal gradient in the Drakensberg Mountains, South Africa

Abstract: Patterns of invertebrate species richness and body size across elevational gradients have been well-documented in a variety of studies. However, very little is known about the factors that govern these patterns along elevational gradients. A number of studies have have reported a monotonic decrease in species richness with increasing elevation; while others have observed a hump-shaped pattern, where the peak of species richness occurs at an intermediate elevation. For body size, st...

Natural and human impacts on habitat use of coastal delphinids in the Mossel Bay area, Western Cape, South Africa

Abstract: The south coast of South Africa represents the extreme western end of the range of the Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis, plumbea type) and Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), which are both confirmed to range as far west as False Bay (Jefferson & Karczmarski, 2001; Hammond et al., 2008). Individual ranging behaviour for both species however is not well resolved. Recent genetic analyses suggest that animals currently considered as plumbea type Sousa chinensis ...

Afromontane avian assemblages and land use in the Bale Mountains of Ethiopia : patterns, processes and conservation implications

Abstract: Although protected areas have been used as principal conservation tools, most of them are suffering from human-induced threats. Consequently, a good understanding of such human-driven threats on biodiversity and identifying early warning systems for habitat change in protected areas is necessary for effective conservation of natural resources. To examine the impact of human disturbance on avifaunal assemblages and to assess the potential application of birds as bioindicators of for...


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