Agriculture

Research Papers/Topics in Agriculture

Impact of DIY Home Manufacturing with 3D Printing on the Toy and Game Market

The 2020 toy and game market is projected to be US$135 billion. To determine if 3D printing could affect these markets if consumers offset purchases by 3D printing free designs, this study investigates the 100 most popular downloaded designs at MyMiniFactory in a month. Savings are quantified for using a Lulzbot Mini 3D printer and three filament types: commercial filament, pellet-extruded filament, and post-consumer waste converted to filament with a recyclebot. Case studies probed the quali...

Cost-effectiveness of interventions for alternate food in the United States to address agricultural catastrophes

The literature suggests there is ~0.3 percent chance per year of full-scale nuclear war. This event would have ~20 percent probability of causing U.S. mass starvation due to collapse of conventional agriculture from smoke blocking the sun. Alternate foods exploit fossil fuels (e.g. methane digesting bacteria) and stored biomass (e.g. mushrooms growing on dead trees) and are technically capable of saving all Americans from starving. However, current awareness is low and the technologies need t...

Food without sun: Price and life-saving potential

The sun could be blocked by an asteroid impact, supervolcanic eruption, or nuclear winter caused by burning of cities during nuclear war. The primary problem in these scenarios is loss of food production. Previous work has shown that alternate foods not dependent on sunlight, such as bacteria grown on natural gas, calories extracted from killed leaves, and cellulose turned into sugar enzymatically, could feed everyone in these catastrophes and preparation for these foods would save lives high...

Farmers’ Perception of Climate Change a Case Study in Swaziland

This study was designed to establish farmers’ perception on climate change and weather variability and its impacts on input investments, crop yields and food security. The study was conducted in the Middleveld of Swaziland were three constituencies were selected within the region. Three communities were selected spatially from each constituency. Purposive sampling was used to select 30 households from each community to make a sample size of 270 households. Information was collected from hea...

Socio-Economic Constraints on Goat Farming In the Lowveld of Swaziland – A Case Study of Matsanjeni

This study was designed to focus on why subsistence livestock farmers concentrate mainly on cattle rearing instead of diversifying the livestock sector to incorporate small ruminants particularly goats which can sustain under a diverse climatic conditions.  Areas of interest in this study were socioeconomic and cultural factors namely; social status, ownership, dignity, prestige, taste, lack of information on sustainable goat farming, customary activities, income and market that influence fa...

APPROACH USED BY GOVERNMENT AND NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOs) IN PROMOTING CROP PRODUCTION AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON FOOD SECURITY AND HUNGER IN RURAL SWAZILAND: A CASE STUDY OF SITHOBE

This study was done to establish the appropriateness of government and NGOs strategies to improve food security through the production of drought resistant crops in Swaziland. To determine this, analysis was done on the current rural Swazi livelihoods, strategies used by subsistence farmers to cope with hunger, priorities of both subsistence farmers and change agents and the approach used by change agents to fight hunger. Sithobela community was picked as a case study and a total number of 72...

DETERMINANTS OF CROP ENTERPRISE DIVERSIFICATION AMONG SMALL HOLDER FARMERS IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA.

ABSTRACT The study analysed the determinants of crop enterprise diversification among smallholder crop farmers in Delta State. Specifically, it sought to ascertain the socioeconomic characteristics of respondent, the determinants of crop enterprise diversification among the smallholder crop farmers, the intensity of crop enterprise diversification, the different crop combinations, the reasons for participating in crop enterprise diversification, the likely benefits of participating ...

Effect of dietary supplementation of inulin and vitamin C on the growth, hematology, innate immunity, and resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

The in vivo activities of inulin and ascorbic acid were evaluated experimentally via using 450 Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) that were distributed into 3 equal groups (each of three replicates). Fish of the first group served as a control and received a balanced diet free from inulin and vitamin C. The second fed on balanced diet supplemented with inulin (5 g kg1), whereas, the third one received a balanced diet supplemented with vitamin C (500 mg kg1). The surviv...

Effect of Garlic, Echinacea, Organic Green and Vet-Yeast on Survival, Weight Gain, and Bacterial Challenge of Overwintered Nile Tilapia Fry (Orechromis niloticus)

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of some immunostimulants and probiotics on the survival rate, final weight, and disease resistance of overwintered tilapia fry. There were five treatments: T1 (control) fed a balanced diet (35% protein) without additives. Treatments 2 to 5 were fed diets supplemented with 4% garlic, 4 g/kg Echinacea, 4 g/kg Organic Green or 4 g/kg Vet-Yeast, respectively. Growth and resistance to disease challenge with Aero...

Effect of probiotics on the survival, growth and challenge infection in Tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus)

This study was conducted in order to evaluate the potential bene¢t of Bacillus pumilus and a commercial product (‘Organic Green’TM) as a probiotic in the culture of the tilapia nilotica. Two doses of B. pumilus (106 and 1012 g1 diet fed) and Organic GreenTM (1 and 2 g kg1 diet fed) were used as feed additives and administered for periods of 1 (groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively) and 2 (groups 6, 7, 8 and 9 respectively) months; group 1 served as a...

Characterization of Some Bacteria Isolated from Oreochromis niloticus and their Potential Use as Probiotics

A total of one thousand Oreochromis niloticus held in earthen ponds of the WorldFish Center were used in this study. Forty of these wererandomly collected from the ponds and subjected to bacteriological and pathological examination where a variety of 80 bacteria were isolated. Among those 15 bacterial isolates were examined for their probiotic activity through studies performed in vitro and in vivo. Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas species and two Gram-positive isolat...

Effect of garlic, black seed and Biogen as immunostimulants on the growth and survival of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei: Cichlidae), and their response to artificial infectio

Three dosage levels of black seed, garlic and commercial Biogen were administered for three months in summer and six months in winter to test their stimulation effect on growth, survival and response to challenge infection in Oreochromis niloticus. At the end of summer, no significant difference was observed in the growth performance of O. niloticus with most treatments, but the level of non-specific mortalities was reduced in all treatment groups compared to the control group....

Studies on Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus, as potential probiotics, on the immune response and resistance of Tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus) to challenge infections

The probiotic activity of two bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus) was evaluated by its effect on the immune response of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), beside its protective effect against challenge infections. Furthermore, their in-vitro inhibitory activity was evaluated.The in-vitro antimicrobial assay showed that Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus inhibited the growth of A. hydrophila. The B. subtilis inhibited the development o...

Effect of dietary supplementation of some immunostimulants on growth performance, profitability and disease resistance of Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) fries reared in hapa-in-pond system under

To evaluate the effect of some immunostimulants on growth performance parameters, survival rate and diseases resistance of Nile tilapia fry reared under different stocking densities, a total number of 2250 Oreochromis niloticus fries (0.3 ±0.05 g) were stocked at (2, 4, and 6 fry/m3) and provided with dietary supplementation of (Garlic 40 g/kg, purpurea extract 4 g/kg, Organic GreenTM 4 g/kg and Vet-YeastTM 4 g/kg of the diet) for a five-month period. The obtained results indicated that, sto...

Trials to improve the response of Orechromis niloticus to Aeromonas hydrophila vaccine using immunostimulants (garlic, Echinacea) and probiotics (Organic GreenTM and Vet-YeastTM)

This work aimed to investigate the role of some immunostimulants and probiotics in improving the response of overwintered tilapia to Aeromonas hydrophila vaccine. In this study, 15000 Nile tilapia fry(Orechromis niloticus) were collected and divided into five groups. Group 1 was the control, groups 2 to 5 were fed diet supplemented with garlic, Echinacea, Organic GreenTM and Vet-YeastTM respectively for 5 months. Vaccination with A. hydrophila bacteria was done by the end of th...


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