Agriculture

Research Papers/Topics in Agriculture

Variants mining of Kappa casein K-CN and Prolactin PRL genes among four indigenous cattle breeds in Nigeria

The study determined the allele and genotype frequencies of genetic variants in two genes associated with milk production traits in four indigenous cattle breeds (N’dama, White Fulani, Muturu and Keteku) in Nigeria. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was used to detect genetic polymorphisms in two milk genes (kappa casein (K-CN) and Prolactin (PRL)). Three genetic variants (AA, AB and BB) of K-CN gene were detected in White Fulani and Mut...

ASSOCIATON OF KAPPA-CASEIN GENOTYPE AND THE LINEAR PARAMETER IN TWO INDIGENIOUS BOS INDICUS AND BOS TAURUS CATTLE IN NIGERIA

Kappa-casein as a mammalian milk protein is involved in a several important physiological processes and it’s about 80% of the total protein in cow milk. This study aimed at genotyping bovine Kappa casein(CSN3) in two indigenous Nigerian cattle populations and to determine the frequency distribution of Kappa casein variants as detected across the animals examined and their association with the body measurement. DNA was extracted from 100 blood samples of 50 White Fulani and 50...

Effects of Age and Management System on Egg Quality Traits of Fulani Ecotype Hens

The study was carried out to determine the effect of age and management system on egg quality traits of Fulani ecotype hens. Egg quality traits were measured at 20, 22 and 24 weeks of age from 45 Fulani ecotype hens reared in the cage and deep litter system of management. However, 50 to 70 eggs were utilized at different ages. Data were collected on Egg weight (EW), Egg length (EL), Egg width (EWD), Shell weight (SW), Shell thickness (ST), Yolk weight (YW), Yolk width (YWD), Yo...

Transcriptome profiling of four candidate milk genes in milk and tissue samples of temperate and tropical cattle

The expression of four genes involved in milk regulation and production in bovine milk and tissue samples profiled using quantitative PCR to identify differential gene expression. Our goal focussed on the differential mRNA expression of milk genes (K-CN, PRL, BLG and PIT-1) in milk samples and different tissues from four different breeds of ecologically adapted and geographically separated cattle species. The mRNA expression identified the four milk genes understudied most upregulat...

Genotype and sex effects on the performance characteristics of pigs

Data from fifty-four pigs: twenty-five Duroc, twenty-one Large White and eight crosses of Duroc and Large White (Hybrid) were used to quantify and mathematically describe the performance traits of pigs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of genotype, sex and their interaction on the performance characteristics of three pig genotypes. The pigs were 30 kg of body weight and 70 days of age at the beginning of the study. Records for body weight (BW), body len...

Impact of DIY Home Manufacturing with 3D Printing on the Toy and Game Market

The 2020 toy and game market is projected to be US$135 billion. To determine if 3D printing could affect these markets if consumers offset purchases by 3D printing free designs, this study investigates the 100 most popular downloaded designs at MyMiniFactory in a month. Savings are quantified for using a Lulzbot Mini 3D printer and three filament types: commercial filament, pellet-extruded filament, and post-consumer waste converted to filament with a recyclebot. Case studies probed the quali...

Cost-effectiveness of interventions for alternate food in the United States to address agricultural catastrophes

The literature suggests there is ~0.3 percent chance per year of full-scale nuclear war. This event would have ~20 percent probability of causing U.S. mass starvation due to collapse of conventional agriculture from smoke blocking the sun. Alternate foods exploit fossil fuels (e.g. methane digesting bacteria) and stored biomass (e.g. mushrooms growing on dead trees) and are technically capable of saving all Americans from starving. However, current awareness is low and the technologies need t...

Food without sun: Price and life-saving potential

The sun could be blocked by an asteroid impact, supervolcanic eruption, or nuclear winter caused by burning of cities during nuclear war. The primary problem in these scenarios is loss of food production. Previous work has shown that alternate foods not dependent on sunlight, such as bacteria grown on natural gas, calories extracted from killed leaves, and cellulose turned into sugar enzymatically, could feed everyone in these catastrophes and preparation for these foods would save lives high...

Farmers’ Perception of Climate Change a Case Study in Swaziland

This study was designed to establish farmers’ perception on climate change and weather variability and its impacts on input investments, crop yields and food security. The study was conducted in the Middleveld of Swaziland were three constituencies were selected within the region. Three communities were selected spatially from each constituency. Purposive sampling was used to select 30 households from each community to make a sample size of 270 households. Information was collected from hea...

Socio-Economic Constraints on Goat Farming In the Lowveld of Swaziland – A Case Study of Matsanjeni

This study was designed to focus on why subsistence livestock farmers concentrate mainly on cattle rearing instead of diversifying the livestock sector to incorporate small ruminants particularly goats which can sustain under a diverse climatic conditions.  Areas of interest in this study were socioeconomic and cultural factors namely; social status, ownership, dignity, prestige, taste, lack of information on sustainable goat farming, customary activities, income and market that influence fa...

APPROACH USED BY GOVERNMENT AND NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOs) IN PROMOTING CROP PRODUCTION AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON FOOD SECURITY AND HUNGER IN RURAL SWAZILAND: A CASE STUDY OF SITHOBE

This study was done to establish the appropriateness of government and NGOs strategies to improve food security through the production of drought resistant crops in Swaziland. To determine this, analysis was done on the current rural Swazi livelihoods, strategies used by subsistence farmers to cope with hunger, priorities of both subsistence farmers and change agents and the approach used by change agents to fight hunger. Sithobela community was picked as a case study and a total number of 72...

DETERMINANTS OF CROP ENTERPRISE DIVERSIFICATION AMONG SMALL HOLDER FARMERS IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA.

ABSTRACT The study analysed the determinants of crop enterprise diversification among smallholder crop farmers in Delta State. Specifically, it sought to ascertain the socioeconomic characteristics of respondent, the determinants of crop enterprise diversification among the smallholder crop farmers, the intensity of crop enterprise diversification, the different crop combinations, the reasons for participating in crop enterprise diversification, the likely benefits of participating ...

Effect of dietary supplementation of inulin and vitamin C on the growth, hematology, innate immunity, and resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

The in vivo activities of inulin and ascorbic acid were evaluated experimentally via using 450 Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) that were distributed into 3 equal groups (each of three replicates). Fish of the first group served as a control and received a balanced diet free from inulin and vitamin C. The second fed on balanced diet supplemented with inulin (5 g kg1), whereas, the third one received a balanced diet supplemented with vitamin C (500 mg kg1). The surviv...

Effect of Garlic, Echinacea, Organic Green and Vet-Yeast on Survival, Weight Gain, and Bacterial Challenge of Overwintered Nile Tilapia Fry (Orechromis niloticus)

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of some immunostimulants and probiotics on the survival rate, final weight, and disease resistance of overwintered tilapia fry. There were five treatments: T1 (control) fed a balanced diet (35% protein) without additives. Treatments 2 to 5 were fed diets supplemented with 4% garlic, 4 g/kg Echinacea, 4 g/kg Organic Green or 4 g/kg Vet-Yeast, respectively. Growth and resistance to disease challenge with Aero...

Effect of probiotics on the survival, growth and challenge infection in Tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus)

This study was conducted in order to evaluate the potential bene¢t of Bacillus pumilus and a commercial product (‘Organic Green’TM) as a probiotic in the culture of the tilapia nilotica. Two doses of B. pumilus (106 and 1012 g1 diet fed) and Organic GreenTM (1 and 2 g kg1 diet fed) were used as feed additives and administered for periods of 1 (groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively) and 2 (groups 6, 7, 8 and 9 respectively) months; group 1 served as a...


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