Natural & Applied Sciences

Natural & Applied Sciences Research Papers/Topics

THE ROLE OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica) SEED AND GARLIC (Allium sativum) BULB POWDERS AS BIO-PESTICIDES AGAINST ADULT MAIZE WEEVIL (Sitophilus zeamais Motsch.) IN STORED MAIZE

Abstract: Post-harvest losses are one of the major causes of food insecurity in the developing world. The present study was planned to investigate the effect of neemseed and garlic bulb powders in control of maize weevil and prolonged storage of maize grains. A 3x3x2 factorial experiment was laid in a Complete Randomized Design (CRD) replicated two times. The result indicated that all the treatments had shown high repellence against maize weevil at all amounts of treatments (5, 10, and 15 gr...

MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY AND SAFETY OF FRUIT JUICE SERVED IN CAFES OF DIRE DAWA TOWN, EASTERN ETHIOPIA

Abstract: Fresh fruits are essential components of the human diet and there is considerable evidence of the health and nutritional benefits associated with the consumption of fresh fruits. However, during processing contamination from raw materials, equipment or food handlers could be easily transferred to the final product of fruit juices resulting food-borne illnesses. Therefore, the aim of this research was to evaluate the microbiological safety of avocado, mango and papaya fruit juices a...

PREVALENCE AND ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY OF BACTERIAL UROPATHOGENS AMONG PATIENTS OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION

Abstract: Urinary tract infection is one of the most prevalent infections caused by different pathogens. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of uropathogens among patients visiting Hasasa Health Center from March to May 2016.A total of 384 patients participated in this study. Culturing and identification of uropathogens were performed by using agar (Mac-Conkey agar and blood agar) and biochemical test. Antimicrobial resistance testing...

THE ROLE OF ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID IN DELAYING POSTHARVEST RIPENING OF APPLE (Malus domestica Borkh.)FRUIT

Abstract: Apples are the natural source of dietary mineral salts, vitamins, antioxidants, fiber, organic acids and sugars. Reduction of post-harvest losses and quality deterioration are essential in increasing food availability from the existing production. Minimizing this loss has a great significance for food security, economic growth and welfare of the society. This study was planned to investigate the role of asprin (acetylsalicylic acid) treatment in improving post harvest quality, shel...

ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI ABUNDANCE AND DIVERSITY ACROSS DIFFERENT LAND-USE TYPES IN JABI TEHNAN WOREDA WESTERN GOJAM, ETHIOPIA

Abstract: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are ubiquitous soil organisms. They form symbioses with majority of terrestrial plants and contributor to mineral and water uptake, plant biodiversity, productivity, ecosystem stability and function. However, AMF community structure and function are affected by land use and land cover changes. This necessitates the exploration of the AMF land- use change association within selected agro-ecosystems in the country. To this end, a site was selected a...

MICROPROPAGATION OF ENDOD (Phytolacca dodecandra) L ′Herit THROUGH LEAF CULTURE

Abstract: Endod (Phytolacca dodecandra L’Heit var. E-44 and E-17) is medicinal plant of high saponin content used as molluscicide to control Schistosomiasis. The aim of, this study was to develop a micropropagation protocol for P.dodecandra. The E17 and E44 variety leaf explant was sterilized and cultured on MS media supplemented with different types of concentration and combination of cytokinins and auxins for shoot initiation, multiplication and root initiation. Local bleach (Berekina) 3...

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING FROM LEAVES OF DATURA STRAMONIUM L. AND JUSTICIA SCHIMPERIANA AND EVALUATION OF THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES AGAINST SELECTED HUMAN ENTERIC BACTERIA

Abstract: The growing phenomenon of antibiotic resistance, particularly to pathogenic microorganisms, in current medicine, has directed the concern of scientists for finding novel antimicrobial agents from plant origin with negligible side effect. The aim of this study was to screen the major secondary compounds of leaves of D. stramoinum and J. schimperiana and to evaluate their antimicrobial properties against (S. aureus, S. typhi and S. boydii). Extraction was done by maceration of leaf p...

FREQUENCIES OF THE ABO BLOOD GROUP SYSTEM AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH Helicobacter pylori INFECTION AMONG PATIENTS WITH GASTROINTESTINAL COMPLAINTS IN ASELLA TEACHING AND REFERRAL HOSPITAL, ARS

Abstract: Helicobacter pylori are a small, spiral-shaped bacterium that lives on the surface of the stomach and duodenum. H. pylorus is closely associated with onset of diseases such as gastric ulcers, duodenal ulcers, gastritis and gastric cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies of ABO blood group system and its relationship with H. pylori infection among patients with gastrointestinal complaints at the Asella Teaching and Referral Hospital. A total of 422 patients o...

PHYTOTOXICITY OF Lantana camara L. EXTRACTS AND SOIL FROM BENEATH ITS CANOPY ON CABBAGE (Brassica carinata A.)

Abstract: Lantana camara is an invasive weed species that has allelopathic effects on crops and other indigenous associated plants. Allelochemicals from such plants may also have positive or negative impact on soils. Therefore, the research was carried out to investigate the allelopathic effect of leaf extracts of Lantana camara and soils invaded by it on Brassica carinata. Leaf extracts of Lantana camara were prepared with water, hexane and methanol, while distilled water alone was used as ...

ABO BLOOD GROUP DISTRIBUTION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH SOME INTESTINAL PROTOZOAN PARASIC INFECTIONS IN WARA JARSO DISTRICT, NORTH SHEWA ZONE, OROMIA REGIONAL STATE,ETHIOPA

Abstract: The Frequencies of ABO blood groups system phenotypes,alleles, and genotypes vary worldwide and are not found in equal frequencies even among ethnic groups.Part of the immune response is the production of globulins called antibodies to combat the invader.ABO blood group system has multiple associations with different infectious diseases including intestinal protozoan parasitic infections (IPPIs). Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the distribution of ABO blood group sys...

ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM SORGHUM STRAW WITH ACID PRETREATMENT USING Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Abstract: Fermentation is a metabolic process of microorganisms to obtain energy by breaking down organic compound. Sorghum straw was fermented with different concentration substrate (15gm, 30gm , 45g and 60gm) with 0.5% ,1% yeast in different fermentation period (4th day, 8th day, 12th and 16th days) with the aim of ethanol production from Sorghum straw. Among the different substrate concentration 15 gram of substrate mixed with 1% yeast produced high quantity of ethanol on 4th day of ferme...

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POTENTIAL PROBIOTIC LACTIC ACID BACTERIA FROM THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT (GIT) OF POULTRY

Abstract: Lactic acid bacteria are one of the most important groups of microorganisms useful in animal and human health as probiotics. Probiotics are the health promoting living microorganisms and produces antimicrobial compounds such as organic acids, H2O2 and bacteriocins. Now a day, the use of antibiotics as growth promoters is questionable. In this case, probiotics have a potential to solve this problem as one of the alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters. The aim of this study was ...

PREVALENCE AND INTENSITY OF INTESTINAL PARASITE INFECTIONS AMONG CHILDERN AT MUKETURI PRIMARY SCHOOL, OROMIA REGIONAL STATE, ETHIOPIA

Abstract: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPI) are among the major health problems in many countries including Ethiopia. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasitic infections and to identify the major protozoan and helminthes parasitic species among primary school children in the study area .The design of the study was a ccross-sectional school based parasitological survey involving 400 sample student populations drawn from Muket...

CURRENT PREVALENCE AND TRENDS OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS AND HIV INFECTIONS AND CO-INFECTIONS AMONG PATIENTS VISITING KUYU HOSPITAL, GARBA GURACHA TOWN, NORTH SHOA, OROMIA, ETHIOPIA

Abstract: HIV greatly increase the number of TB patients, which in turn increases TB transmission from family member and community members. The study was conducted in Kuyu Hospital from February-May 2017 with the objectives of determining the prevalence and trends of HIV, TB and their co-infections and associated risk factor among patients visiting Kuyu Hospital. A total of 384 patients of all age were enrolled in the study and out of this, the number of males and females were 196 and 188, r...

EVALUATION OF CELLULASE PRODUCTION BY RUMEN BACTERIA USING LIGNOCELLULOSIC SUBSTRATES AS CARBON SOURCE

Abstract: The rumen is a special digestive vessel of ruminants, where digestion of cellulose and other plant polysaccharides occurs through microbial activities. On average, cellulose accounts for 50% of the dry weight of plant biomass. Cellulose and agricultural wastes were used as sole carbon sources for the production of cellulase by bacteria. This study focused on isolating and screening cellulase-producing rumen bacteria. The isolated rumen bacteria were identified using morphological a...


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