Natural & Applied Sciences

Natural & Applied Sciences Research Papers/Topics

Mostar Index of Cycle-Related Structures

Abstract A topological index is a numerical quantity associated with the molecular structure of a chemical compound. This number remains fixed with respect to the symmetry of a molecular graph. Diverse research studies have shown that the topological indices of symmetrical graphs are interrelated with several physiochemical properties such as boiling point, density, and heat of formation. Peripherality is also an important tool to study topological aspects of molecular graphs. Recently, a bo...

Viral synergism and its role in management of maize lethal necrosis disea

Abstract Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) in Kenya has been reported to be caused by a coinfection between a non-potyvirus Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and a potyvirus Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV). The control of the disease in Kenya has been a challenge owing to the synergistic interactions that exist between the two viruses. This study, sought to determine the stage of synergism between the two viruses and its role in influencing the severity of the disease. Three maize hybrids...

Estimation of Risk Factors Affecting Screening Outcomes of Prostate Cancer Using the Bayesian Ordinal Logistic Model

Abstract Prostate cancer occurs when cells in the prostate gland grow out of control. Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas. The survival rate for prostate cancer patients depends on the screening outcome, which can be either no prostate cancer, early detection, and late detection or advanced stage detection. The main objective of this study was to estimate the risk factors affecting the screening outcome of prostate cancer. With ordinal outcomes, a generalized Bayesian ordinal log...

Human NCR3 gene variants rs2736191 and rs11575837 alter longitudinal risk for development of pediatric malaria episodes and severe malarial anemia

Abstract Background Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-associated endemic Burkitt’s Lymphoma pediatric cancer is associated with morbidity and mortality among children resident in holoendemic Plasmodium falciparum regions in western Kenya. P. falciparum exerts strong selection pressure on sickle cell trait (SCT), alpha thalassemia (-α3.7/αα), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), and merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP-2) variants (FC27, 3D7) that confer reduced malarial disease severity. The cu...

Above-ground carbon stocks and its functional relationship with tree species diversity: the case of Kakamega and North Nandi Forests, Kenya

Abstract Estimating aboveground carbon (AGC) dynamics and tree diversity functionality relationships is critical in understanding the role of vegetation in implementing climate change mitigation strategies and promoting sustainable forest management. This study aimed to evaluate AGC stocks and their functional relationship with tree species diversity in Kakamega and North Nandi Forests, Kenya. A nested approach was adopted in sampling aboveground vegetation for biomass estimation in least di...

Urban Proximity and Its Influence on Peri Urban Land Use Pattern

Abstract Urbanisation has caused unprecedented land use changes around urban settlements, leading to enormous socio-economic impacts on peri-urban residents. The spatial growth of urban settlements beyond designated boundaries into the urban fringes has resulted in the transformation of prime agricultural land into commercial and residential uses, effectively altering traditional land use patterns. The objective of this study was to establish the influence of proximity to urban settlements o...

Canonical Correlation in Modeling Short Term Expenditure versus Poverty Levels in Informal Settlements

Abstract Populations in informal settlements grapple with poor living conditions and inability to access quality education. Expenditure behaviour especially on short term basis is one of the major causes of poverty as majority live from hand to mouth and not in position to provide their children with education. This study applied canonical correlation used in a wide range of disciplines to analyse the relationship between short term expenditure and poverty levels. The main objective was to e...

Optimized Dyeing of Cotton with semi-synthetic Embelin Ninhydrin Dye Obtained by Chemical Modification of Embelin from Embelia Schimperi

Abstract Chemical modification is a promising path to address the limitations of a natural dye, such as limited shades and inadequate fastness properties. This study investigated the modification of embelin (2, 5-dihydroxy-3-undecyl-1, 4-benzoquinone) a plant-based benzoquinone compound from Embelia schimperi (Myrisinaceae family) with ninhydrin to get a semi-synthetic dye. The modified dye was applied to cotton fabric along with mordants to provide different shades. Optimum dyeing condition...

In vivo antibacterial activity of extracts of Tithonia diversifolia against Ralstonia solanacearum in tomato

Abstract Currently, losses in crop yields caused by Ralstonia solanacearum have led to the overuse of synthetic pesticides, which are toxic and non-biodegradable hence detrimental to the environment. This study, therefore, investigated the in vivo antibacterial activity of ethanolic and hexane extracts from Tithonia diversifolia against R. solanacearum in tomatoes. Extraction was performed using the maceration method followed by evaluation of the extraction yields. During the in vivo greenho...

Synthesis, Characterization, and Evaluation of the Remediation Activity of Cissus quadrangularis Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle-Activated Carbon Composite on Dieldrin in Aqueous Solution

Abstract In this study, zinc oxide-activated carbon nanocomposite was used as the adsorbent for the remediation of dieldrin in aqueous media. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZNPs) were synthesized from Cissus quadrangularis (C. quadrangularis) leaf extract, and activated carbon was derived from maize cobs. Nanocomposites were formulated by mixing the ZNPs with the activated carbon in a ratio of 1 : 50. The UV-Vis spectra showed a complete reduction of Zn2+ to Zn0 with plasmon resonance bands i...

Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of African Basil (Ocimum gratissimum L.) Leaves

Abstract Aim: To determine the phytochemicals in Ocimum gratissimum leaves, their phenolic content, antioxidant potential and antiproliferative activity against human prostate (DU145), colon (CT26) and cervical (HeLa 229) cancer cells. Place and Duration of the Study: Leaves of O. gratissimum were collected from cultivated plants in Wakiso district of Uganda. The samples were analyzed at Directorate of Government Analytical Original Research Article Nassazi et al.; AJACR, 6(4): 1-18, 2020; A...

Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaves

Abstract Phytochemicals in Rosmarinus officinalis leaves, their total phenolic content, antioxidant potential and antiproliferative activity against human prostate (DU145), colon (CT26) and cervical (HeLa 229) cancer cells were investigated. Extraction was done separately using hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol. A total of 32 compounds were identified, eight of which were reported for the first time. The highest phenolic content was 476.80 ± 0.69 µg/ml for the methanolic ...

Evaluation of dyeing properties of natural dyes extracted from the heartwood of Prosopis juliflora on cotton fabric

Abstract Purpose Considered as one of the most unwanted species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, the Prosopis juliflora plant is a noxious and invasive weed. Recent studies suggest that the heartwood of the plant has an unusually high amounts of flavonoids with potential medicinal properties and dyeing potentials. In this work, acetonic extracts were successfully valorized into a natural dye. Design/methodology/approach After extraction and optimization of dyeing condit...

Ethnobotany, ethnopharmacology, and phytochemistry of traditional medicinal plants used in the management of symptoms of tuberculosis in East Africa: a systematic review

Abstract Objective Many studies on the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) using herbal medicines have been undertaken in recent decades in East Africa. The details, however, are highly fragmented. The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive overview of the reported medicinal plants used to manage TB symptoms, and to analyze scientific reports on their effectiveness and safety. Method A comprehensive literature search was performed in the major electronic databases regarding medicina...

Molecular Docking Interactions with Mycobacterial ATP and Polyketide-13 Synthase Enzymes of Phytoconstituents Isolated from Entada abyssinica Stem Bark

Abstract The search for novel therapies for tuberculosis continues due to the emergence of resistant strains, adverse drug reactions, and potential drug-drug interactions of antitubercular drugs. This study was undertaken to identify compounds from Entada abyssinica, a plant used by herbalists in East Africa for the management of symptoms of tuberculosis. An extract of shade-dried E. abyssinica stem bark was prepared by maceration in a mixture of acetone and methanol in the ratio of 3:2. Col...


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