Natural & Applied Sciences

Natural & Applied Sciences Research Papers/Topics

Effects of land use practices on soil organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in river Nzoia drainage basin, Kenya

Abstract/Overview Land use activities along River Nzoia Drainage Basin, Kenya, include cultivation along the river banks, over grazing, deforestation, draining of wetlands for horticulture, harvesting of sand and brick-making. These activities have brought about changes in soil properties in the drainage basin adversely affecting farming output and the ecosystem in general. Consequently, it is important to understand how the different land use activities influence the soil properties in o...

Finite difference solution of (2+1)-dimensional sine-gordon equation: A model for investigating the effects of varying surface damping parameter on josephson current flowing through the long

Abstract/Overview Modeling of some physical phenomena and technological processes taking into account dissipation leads to the Sine-Gordon equation with the first time derivative. The (2+1) Sine-Gordon equation with the first time derivative is used in explaining a number of physical phenomena including the propagation of fluxons in Josephson junctions. This study uses Finite Difference Method to solve (2+1) dimensional Sine-Gordon equation with the first time derivative that models dissi...

Finite element approach to the solution of fourth order beam equation

Abstract/Overview Finite element method is a class of mathematical tool which approximates solutions to initial and boundary value problems. Finite element, basic functions, stiffness matrices, systems of ordinary differential equations and hence approximate solutions of partial differential equations which involves rendering the partial differential equation into system of ordinary differential equations. The ordinary differential equations are then numerically integrated. We present a f...

Finite difference solution of (1+1) sinegordon equation: A mathematical model for the rigid pendula attached to a stretched wire

Abstract/Overview The nonlinear (1+1) Sine-Gordon equation that governs the vibrations of the rigid pendula attached to a stretched wire is solved. The equation is discretized and solved by Finite Difference Method with specific initial and boundary conditions. A Crank Nicolson numerical scheme is developed with concepts of stability of the scheme analysed using matrix method. The resulting systems of linear algebraic equations are solved using Mathematica software. The solutions are pres...

Forensic estimation of time of death: A mathematical model

Abstract/Overview In this paper we establish the exact time of death of a murdered person. This leads to an ordinary differential equation whose solution has been analyzed to provide the approximate time of death. Forensic expert will try to estimate this time from body’s current temperature and calculating how long it would have taken to lose heat to reach this point. This provides an accurate approach to establish the approximate time when crime is committed

On local minimum and orthogonality of normal derivations in Cp-classes

Abstract/Overview The present paper gives some results on local minimum and orthogonality of normal derivations in Cp-Classes. We employ some techniques for normal derivations due to Mecheri, Hacene, Bounkhel and Anderson. Let CpCp be normal, then the linear map = attains a local minimum at x Cp if and only if z Cp such that ) Also let Cp, and let have the polar decomposition, then the map attains local minimum on Cp at T if and only if. Regarding orthogonality, let SCp and let N(S) have ...

2-butanone as a carbon dioxide mimic in attractant blends for the Afrotroical malaria mosquitoes anopheles gambie and anopheles funestus

Abstract/Overview Most odour baits designed to attract host-seeking mosquitoes contain carbon dioxide (CO2), which enhances trap catches, given its role as a mosquito fight activator. However, the use of CO2 is expensive and logistically demanding for prolonged area-wide use.

On numerical ranges of convexoid operators

Abstract/Overview Numerical range is useful in studying operators on Hilbert spaces. In particular, the geometrical properties of numerical range often provide useful information about algebraic and analytic properties of an operator. The theory of numerical range played a crucial role in the study of some algebraic structures especially in the non-associative context. The numerical range of an operator depends strongly upon the base field. Motivated by theoretical study and applications,...

Implication of pollen character coding and their diagnostic value in the determination of taxonomic resemblance among indigofera linn species

Abstract/Overview Whereas phenetics emphasizes the use of maximum characters as practicable, decisions on how observations are translated to characters is of importance in systematics in order to partition objects in to nonoverlapping groups.The acetolysed pollen of selected Indigofera Linn. species were viewed under Mg x100 in Leica light microscope. Pollen characteristics of the following Indigofera species deposited in Maseno University Herbarium have been studied: I.paracapitata, I.as...

QTL mapping of fiber quality and yield-related traits in an intra-specific upland cotton using genotype by sequencing (gbs)

Abstract/Overview Fiber quality and yield improvement are crucial for cotton domestication and breeding. With the transformation in spinning techniques and multiplicity needs, the development of cotton fiber quality and yield is of great importance. A genetic map of 5178 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers were generated using 277 F2:3 population, from an intra-specific cross between two upland cotton accessions, CCRI35 a high fiber quality as female and Nan Dan Ba Di Da Hua (NH)...

Bioactive carbazole alkaloids from Alysicarpus ovalifolius (Schumach)

Abstract/Overview Phytochemical and biological evaluation of the stem bark of Alysicarpus ovalifolius led to the isolation of three carbazole alkaloids identified as mohanimbine (1), koenimbine (2) and koenidine (3) along with quercetin 3-O-glucoside (4), kaempferol 7-O-glucoside (5), orientin (6), apigenin (7), quercetin (8), plumbagin (9) and stigmasterol (10). The structures of these compounds were elucidated using physical and spectroscopic methods as well as comparison with the liter...

Incremental modernization of statistics teaching and curriculum at Maseno University, Kenya

Abstract/Overview Modernisation of statistics teaching is a continual problem the world over. The advances in statistical methods and tools along with the growing demand of applied practitioners creates a dual need of people with the theoretical knowledge to take the subject further and those with the practical knowledge and skills for the many current problems requiring statistical support. The universities in Kenya are largely still teaching theory as was done 40 years ago. Change is po...

Generalizations on normal self-ad joint operators

Abstract/Overview We consider certain properties of operators. A lot of studies have been done on reflexivity, compactness and numerical radius attainability on Hilbert space operators [1-12] and the reference therein.

Operators with slowly growing resolvents towards the spectrum

Abstract/Overview A closed densely defined operator H, on a Banach space X, whose spectrum is contained in R and satisfies (z −H)−1 ≤ c hziα |=z|β ∀ z 6∈ R (0.1) for some α , β ≥ 0; c > 0, is said to be of (α, β)−type R . If instead of (0.1) we have (z −H)−1 ≤ c |z|α |=z|β ∀ z 6∈ R, (0.2) then H is of (α, β)0−type R . Examples of such operators include self-adjoint operators, Laplacian on L1(R), Schro¨dinger operators on Lp(Rn) and operators H whose ...

Malaria vector species distribution and seasonal population dynamics across varied ecological zones in Baringo County, Kenya

Abstract/Overview Vector populations fluctuate on a seasonal basis annually. Knowledge on seasonal abundance and distribution of vector species at the local level would improve vector control programmes and contribute to malaria prevention. Despite this, information on malaria vector species distribution and seasonal fluctuations in Baringo County is scarce. This study examined distribution and seasonal abundance of malaria vector species in Baringo. The study area was stratified into fou...


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