Natural & Applied Sciences

Research Papers/Topics in Natural & Applied Sciences

Geochemistry of Estuarine Sediments of Ghana: Provenance, Trace Metal Accumulation Trends and Eco toxicological Risks

ABSTRACT The sedimentary record, as revealed in sediment cores, can be used to reconstruct the past history of contaminant input into the aquatic environment. This is because contaminant inputs equilibrate rapidly with sediment supply, and the sediment column represents a continuous sequence of sediments that are associated with contaminant accumulation. With radiometric techniques, it is possible to date recent sediments over a period corresponding to about five half-lives (approximately 10...

Process Development and Product Characterization of Cowpea Fortified Extruded Breakfast Cereal from Low Grade Rice

ABSTRACT Rice production in Ghana is faced with the major challenge of low patronage. This is due to its poor physical and sensory quality rendering it ‘low grade’ rice. Among the many local varieties of rice in Ghana, Viwonor is perceived to be a low grade rice whereas Jasmine 85 a high grade. Large quantities of rice are imported to address the issue of quality and quantity gap. Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) is a serious nutritional problem facing many countries including Ghana. Co...

Diagnostic Potential of Extant Antischistosoma Genus-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies

ABSTRACT The suitability o f five Schistosoma genus-specific monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) (Sh3/34.10, Sh3/38.2, Sh4/14.3, Sh5/32.30 and Sh5/34.10) in detecting schistosome antigens in infected human and cattle was evaluated. These antibodies were employed in various diagnostic assays to diagnose human and animal schistosomiasis. Extant MoAb secreting hybridoma cells were first propagated in culture to produce the MoAbs. The culture supernatants containing secreted antibodies were analysed b...

Effect of Parasite Diversity On the Levels and Quality of Antibody Responses to Plasmodium Falciparum in an Area of Seasonal Malaria Transmission

ABSTRACT The important role of antibody-mediated mechanisms in protection from clinical malaria has been demonstrated by passive transfer experiments but the targets of protective immunity are not clearly defined. A number of antigens are however in various stages of testing as possible vaccine candidates. Polymorphism in these antigens, which has been reported to be an immune evasion mechanism, has hampered the development of these antigens as vaccines since antibody responses against one a...

Investigating The Virulent Genes and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of V. Cholerae O1 in Environmental and Clinical Isolates in Accra

ABSTRACT Background: Cholera has been endemic in Ghana, since it was first detected in 1970. Outbreaks have often started in slums of the city especially Accra. In spite of the overwhelming nature of cholera outbreak that has resulted in high mortality and morbidity, there is little information on the reservoir of the causative agent. It has however, been shown that long-term survival of the bacteria may be attained in watery environments or in humans with no signs of cholera. Consequently, ...

The Effects of Cryptolepis Sanguinolenta Root Extracts On Plasmodium Falciparum Gametocyte Development

ABSTRACT Current efforts to eliminate malaria worldwide are soaring and one of the approaches to this is the mass screening of medicinal plants for their possible potential anti-malarial property. The current study conducted was to determine the effect of one such plant, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta on gametocyte development. In vitro growth inhibition assays on early and late gametocytes stage using ethanolic and aqueous extract of the C. sanguinolenta roots was performed. Enzyme activity assa...

Comparison of Decontamination Methods for Isolation of Mycobacterium Species from The Environment

ABSTRACT The environment harbours many bacterial species, some of which include non-tuberculous mycobacteria which have recently become important in public health. Isolation of mycobacteria from the environment has not been easy because of the presence of other fast growing bacteria and fungi. For isolation of mycobacteria from the environment, decontamination methods that minimize contamination but maximize recovery of mycobacteria are needed. This study sought to compare three decontaminati...

Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase in Clinical Isolates of Escherichia Coli and Klebsiella Pneumoniae from The Tamale Teaching Hospital

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are pathogens of significant public health interest to which new antibiotics therapies are urgently needed. AIM: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of ESBLs in clinical isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae from patients attending the Tamale Teaching Hospital (TTH). METHODOLOGY: The study was conducted from April through June, 2015. A total of 140 isolates of E. c...

Antibody Responses to Variant Surface Antigens and Biomarkers of Endothelial Damage and Repair in The Development of Cerebral Malaria

ABSTRACT Background: The pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM) is still recognized as multifaceted, despite the plausible explanation provided by the high degree of sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes in major organs of the body. Postmortem studies have demonstrated the presence of hemorrhage, deposition of fibrin and clots in blood vessels of the body where sequestration has been observed. These findings support a potential association between sequestration, endothelial damage and repa...

Isolation and Characterization of Antifungal Agents Produced by Wood Decaying Fungi from Ghana

ABSTRACT Human systemic fungal infections have increased in the past decade due to the dramatic increase in immunocompromised patients hence the emergence of resistant fungal strains. It is therefore necessary to discover new antifungal compounds with novel mode of action. This study was aimed at isolating and characterizing antifungal agents from wood decaying fungi (WDF). The growth conditions for maximum production of bioactive agents from WDF were first tested. It was observed that minera...

Comparative Studies on Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy: PrePlan and Real-Time Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Iodine-125 Seed Implants at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Brachytherapy is a term used to describe the short distance treatment of cancer with radiation from small, encapsulated radionuclide sources. This type of treatment is given by placing sources directly into or near the volume to be treated. The dose is then delivered continuously, either over a short period of time (temporary implants) or over the lifetime of the source to a complete decay (permanent implants). Most common brachytherapy sources emit ph...

Factor Analysis of Customer Preference for Mobile Phone Network (A Case Study of Cape Coast Polytechnic)

ABSTRACT This research tries to determine the “hidden” factors which ultimately influence the choice of mobile phone network in Cape Coast Polytechnic (study area). Principal Component method of Factor analysis is used to achieve the set objectives. There are six mobile phone network providers (MTN, Vodafone, Tigo, Airtel, Globacom and Expresso) in Ghana. All these operators try to improve their marketing strategies in order to attract more customers or subscribers to increase their marke...

Integration Of Ground Magnetic And Frequency Domain Electromagnetic Data, A Case Study From Nkwanta And Asuogya In The Western Region

ABSTRACT Ground magnetics and electromagnetic datasets were processed to interpret the subsurface geology and structure of the southwest of Ghana within the Tarkwain and Volcanics in the central part of the Ashanti belt. The study was aimed at mapping lithology, delineating structural lineaments and their trends as well as the trend of mineralization in the study areas. The data processing steps involved enhancement filters such as reduction to the pole, analytical signal, the first horizonta...

Tectonic Impact On Regional Structural Trends in Ultra Deep Water Cape Three Points

ABSTRACT A 3D seismic data merged with a regional 2D seismic data and well data acquired from Ghana National Petroleum Corporation were used to determine the tectonic impact on regional structural trend in the Ultra-Deep Water Cape Three Points. The Cape Three Point basin was fashioned from transform tectonic and has been severely influenced by the largest tectonic feature in the central Atlantic Ocean, the west-southwest – east-northeast (WSW-ENE) romanche fracture zone. The study area lie...

Assessment of Radiation Dose to Patients During Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (Spect) 99mtc-Sestamibi Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (Mpi) In Niamey- Niger.

ABSTRACT Radiation absorbed dose for patients undergoing myocardial perfusion has been calculated for technetium-99m Hexakis-2-methoxy-2-methylpropyl-isonitrile (99mTcSestamibi) at the Nuclear Medicine Department of Abdou Moumouni University. Thirty patients were scanned and image quantification was achieved using MedisoInterViewXP® software. An activity of370 MBq (10 mCi) of 99mTc-Sestamibi was administered for stress and 1110 MBq (30 mCi) for rest. A 256 x 1024 matrix size and a speed of 2...


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