Medical & Health Sciences

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Medical & Health Sciences Research Papers/Topics

Identification and distribution of pathogens coinfecting with Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii and Rift Valley fever virus in humans, livestock and wildlife

Abstract Zoonotic diseases, such as brucellosis, Q fever and Rift Valley fever (RVF) caused by Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii and RVF virus, respectively, can have devastating effects on human, livestock, and wildlife health and cause economic hardship due to morbidity and mortality in livestock. Coinfection with multiple pathogens can lead to more severe disease outcomes and altered transmission dynamics. These three pathogens can alter host immune responses likely leading to increased mo...

Molecular epidemiology of Brucella species in mixed livestock‑human ecosystems in Kenya

Abstract Brucellosis, caused by several species of the genus Brucella, is a zoonotic disease that afects humans and animal species worldwide. Information on the Brucella species circulating in diferent hosts in Kenya is largely unknown, thus limiting the adoption of targeted control strategies. This study was conducted in multi‑host livestock populations in Kenya to detect the circulating Brucella species and assess evidence of host–pathogen associations. Serum samples were collected fro...

Adaptation Interventions and their Effect on Vulnerability in Developing Countries: Help, Hindrance or Irrelevance?

Abstract/Overview This paper critically reviews the outcomes of internationally-funded interventions aimed at climate change adaptation and vulnerability reduction. It highlights how some interventions inadvertently reinforce, redistribute or create new sources of vulnerability. Four mechanisms drive these maladaptive outcomes: (i)shallow understanding of the vulnerability context; (ii) inequitable stakeholder participationin both design and implementation; (iii) a retrofitting of adaptat...

Drug and Substance Use and Its Predictors among the Youth in Nyamira Sub County, Nyamira

Abstract/Overview Substance and drug use is one of the emerging public health problems among the youth in Kenya. Moreover, it is associated with a myriad of medical effects including psychiatric problems, organ failures in addition to lethargy, decreased academic performance and risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections. Although substance and drug use has been associated with these problems, the magnitude of substance and drug use and its predictors has not been investigated in...

Impact Of Inventory Management Techniques On The Performance Of Public Health Facilities In Kisumu County

Abstract/Overview This quantitative study seeks to understand the impact of inventory management practices on the operational performance of public health facilities in Kisumu County, Kenya. The Objectives were to (1) determine the impact of the ABC system on the operation performance (cost management, waste management, and efficiency of service delivery) of public health facilities in Kisumu County; (2) examine the impact of the Economic Order Quantity system on the operation performance...

COPING STRATEGIES AND HEALTH LITERACY OF MOTHERS TOWARDS SICKLE CELL DISEASE AT SELECTED HEALTH INSTITUTIONS IN IBADAN, OYO STATE.

Sickle cell disease (SCD) remains a formidable challenge around the globe particularly in Nigeria, where prevalence is the highest in the world. The impact of the disease extends beyond the affected children and healthcare systems as mothers engage in a vicious cycle of emotional, medical, social and financial challenges while caring for their children. The aim of this study is to assess the coping strategies and health literacy of mothers towards sickle cell disease at selected health in...

Factors influencing loss of household incomes due to livestock diseases in selected sites of Kyuso Sub County, Kitui County.

Abstract: A cross sectional study was conducted in Kyuso Sub County to determine factors influencing household incomes. The broad objective of the study was to determine the factors that influence household income losses due to livestock diseases and document common and prevalent livestock diseases. The study used descriptive and inferential data collection and analysis methods. The data was collected through primary and secondary data methods. Semi-structured questionnaires were administere...

HIV/AIDS as a Security Threat to Developing Countries: A Case Study of Kenya

Abstract: HIV/AIDS poses a threat to the nations and the people in Sub Saharan Africa. The security forces including military officers, police forces and other uniformed forces have been adversely affected by the pandemic due to the nature of their work and risky behavior. This study explores the extent and implications of HIV/AIDS in Kenya and examines the prevalence of HIV/AIDS amongst the security personnel in Sub Saharan African countries. HIV/AIDS is mired by controversies ranging from ...

Molecular prevalence and diversity of Anaplasmataceae and Bartonellaceae in indigenous Muridae from South Africa

Abstract: The main aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence and diversity of potentially zoonotic bacterial genera in accurately identified indigenous rodents from South Africa. Bacterial prevalence and diversity were determined by PCR amplification and sequence analyses. Rodents were molecularly identified by amplification and sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene region. Three species (Aethomys ineptus, Mastomys coucha and Otomys angoniensis) belonging to...

Prevalence of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms among Adults Seeking Treatment for Substance Use Disorders in Nairobi County

Abstract: Individuals with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are more predisposed to developing a substance use disorder than their healthy peers. This study sought to establish the prevalence of ADHD symptoms among adults seeking treatment for substance use disorder in Nairobi County. It also sought to establish the drug of choice of adults with symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and lastly, to compare the severity of SUD between adults with symptoms of atten...

The Relationship between Covid-19 Pandemic Lockdown and Stress among Caregivers of Children with Autism in Kasarani Region, Nairobi County, Kenya

Abstract: The general objective of this study was to determine the relationship between COVID- 19 pandemic lockdown and stress among caregivers of children with autism in Kasarani region, Nairobi County, Kenya. Mixed methods approach that combines phenomenological research design with correlational research was used. The target population was caregivers of children with autism residing within Kasarani region of Nairobi County. The total sample size was 50 caregivers of children with autism i...

Assessing the Effects of Social Media on The Attitudes and Behaviour of Students from United States International University – Africa Towards Covid – 19 Containment Measures

Abstract: The World Health Organization, different governments, health providers and other stakeholders are the main public health information disseminators, and they use different sources to share the information to the public. One of the most popular sources is social media as it reaches a wide following. However, not all information on social media platforms is always accurate. The creation and spread of unverified information during a pandemic is referred to as infodemics and it tends to...

Influence of Covid-19 Social Distancing Measures on Anxiety Levels of Youth in Eastleigh, Kenya

Abstract: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, movement restrictions were imposed worldwide to limit its spread. In Kenya, Eastleigh was one of the hard-hit areas and this resulted in a curfew from May 7th to June 6th, 2020. This limited movement and interaction has been studied globally and evidence shows that anxiety levels among youth were heightened during this period. However, there is paucity of this evidence in the Kenyan context; therefore, this investigation looks into the influenc...

Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Depression among Youths in Roysambu Ward, Nairobi County, Kenya

Abstract: Alcohol consumption and its relation to mental health disorders is a major concern among considering young people who are still experiencing life cycle development such the pre-frontal brain development. The purpose of the study was to establish the relationship between alcohol consumption and depression among youths in Roysambu ward. The objectives of the study were to assess the gender differences in alcohol consumption among youths who consume alcohol; to determine the levels of...


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