Medical & Health Sciences

Research Papers/Topics in Medical & Health Sciences

Wasting And Stunting Are Still Prevalent In Children With Sickle Cell Anaemia In Lagos, Nigeria

Abstract Background: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is associated with growth failure. However, recent reports indicate high rates of overweight or obesity among children with SCA in developed countries. It is unclear whether overweight or obesity is also common in children with SCA in developing countries. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of overweight or obesity, wasting and stunting and identify predictors of wasting and stunting among children with SCA in Niger...

An Evaluation Of Selected Brachiaria Cultivars On The Weight Change Of Galla Goats In The Coastal Lowlands

ABSTRACTInadequate and erratic rainfall in the arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) of Kenya that are accompanied by long dry spells lead to drought. This leads to low feed availability. Inadequate quality and quantity of feeds is the major constraint to livestock production in the ASALs of Kenya. It is the major input factor to livestock production and accounts for 60-70% of the production cost. There is therefore a need to introduce climate smart forage species in order to expand the forage res...

Estimation Of Sub- Mucosal Layer Spread Of Esophageal Carcinoma Using Computed Tomography

AbstractEsophageal cancer is the third most common gastrointestinal malignancy and is among the 10 most prevalent cancers worldwide (Beasley P. 1997) . the main objective of this study to Assessment of Sub- mucosal Layer Spread of Esophageal Carcinoma using computed tomography . which done to the 35 patients with histologically confirmed esophageal carcinoma ,referred to Alamal Hospital and Alneleen Medical Center, for determine the accurate site and size of tumor for possible treatment from ...

Determination Of Factors Predisposing Children Aged 1-9 Years To Trachoma In Kirindon Division, Trans Mara Sub-County.

ABSTRACTTrachoma is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, which produces a characteristic scarring of the inner surface of the eyelids. It affects all age groups but is more prevalent among young children, aged less than 9 years, who are the reservoirs of the disease. Trachoma is the leading cause of infectious blindness in the world, accounting for more than 1.4% of the world‟s blindness. It‟s transmitted through direct contact of infected ocular material f...

Assessing Men‟S Knowledge And Perceptions Of Male Involvement In Maternal And Child Health Services And Their Influence On Clinic Attendance In Suba Sub County, Kenya

ABSTRACTMale Involvement (MI) in Maternal and Child Health (MCH) services such as pre-conception care, antenatal care (ANC), prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, skilled birth and management of birth complications, is an intervention that plays a crucial role in improving MCH outcomes. Increased utilization of MCH services is an essential package in reducing the risks associated with pregnancy and child bearing since mothers may develop serious life-threatening complicat...

The Use of Metaphor in EkeGusii Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) discourse

Abstract This study lies in the field of Cognitive Linguistics as it focuses on the use of metaphor in EkeGusii Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) discourse. This chapter highlights health communication, the history of HIV and AIDS in Kenya, EkeGusii and HIV, the linguistic expressions used in HIV and AIDS discourse and the concept of metaphor. The chapter also presents the statement of the problem, its research questions, objectives, justifi...

Determinants Of Provider-Initiated Hiv Testing And Counselling Uptake In Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Teaching And Referral Hospital, Kisumu, Kenya

ABSTRACTThe burden of HIV/AIDS persists in sub-Saharan Africa, in which Kenya is part, despite the preventive efforts. The national prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Kenya is 5.6%, and Nyanza Province is (15.1%) which is more than double. Subsequently, the prevalence in Kisumu is at 18.5%. Universal access to HIV Testing and Counselling (HTC) is recognized as the cornerstone for HIV prevention. Furthermore, it has been evidenced that Provider-Initiated Testing and Counselling (PITC) is considered as ...

Surveillance For Molecular Markers Of Plasmodium Falciparum Resistance To Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies In Western Kenya

ABSTRACTRecent decreases in the global malaria burden are partly due to the deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, these significant gains are threatened by emergence of drug-resistant malaria parasites. In Africa, P. falciparum remains susceptible to ACTs. However, due to the emergence of parasites that are resistant to ACTs in Southeast Asia and the recent report of declined responsiveness of P. fal...

Irritable Bowel Syndrome In Adolescents In Lagos

Abstract Introduction: irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) which has been well described in western populations especially as the commonest cause of recurrent abdominal pain The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) amongst children in western Nigeria and increase the aware ness of IBS amongst physicians who manage children with abdominal pain. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study cond...

Polymorphisms Of Toll Like Receptor 4 (-8984c/G And 299asp/Gly) And Interferon Gamma Levels In Children With Severe Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria Anaemia In Siaya County, Western Kenya

ABSTRACTPlasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) malaria is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa despite the integrated approaches put in place to control the disease. Most of the mortality in holoendemic transmission areas occurs due to severe P. falciparum disease complication of severe malarial anaemia (SMA), a condition which largely presents in children below five years. Molecular determinants have been implicated in the pathogenesis of SMA (Hb

An Evaluation Of Brachiaria Grass Cultivars Productivity In Semi Arid Kenya

ABSTRACTThe scarce and low nutritive livestock forage resource base in semi arid Kenya limits livestock production in these regions. The major factor contributing to this situation is inadequate and erratic rainfall patterns accompanied by long dry spells often culminating into drought. To exploit the full potential of the ASALs for livestock production there is need to expand the forage resource base through introduction of climate smart forage species. This study was carried out to evaluate...

Level Of Awareness, Perception And Practice Of Conventional Preventive Measures For Computer Vision Syndrome Among University Students, Maseno, Western Kenya

ABSTRACTComputer vision syndrome (CVS) is a multi-factorial condition of the eye that results in symptoms of stress and eye discomfort among electronic device users. It causes considerable chronic vision-related morbidity and reduced work productivity. Ninety percent and 75% of computer users globally and in Africa, respectively, suffer from CVS. The risk factors for CVS include prolonged period of electronic device use, glare, refractive error, short viewing distance and inappropriate seatin...

Frequency Of Relapse Among Nigerian Children With Steroid Sensitive Nephrotic Syndrome

Abstract Background: The clinical course of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) among Nigerian children has rarely been reported; this makes prognostication difficult. Objectives: The objective was to determine the frequency of relapses including frequent relapses (FR) and steroid-dependence (SD) in a cohort of Nigerian children with SSNS. A secondary objective was to identify clinical and demographic factors associated with relapse in these children. Methods: Medical records of...

Incidences And Severity Of Maize Ear Rot Causing Pathogens And Response Of Selected Maize Hybrids To Diplodia (Stenocarpella Spp.) In Selected Counties In Nyanza Region

ABSTRACTMaize (Zea mays) is a staple food grown in almost all agro-ecological zones in Kenya. The production output is very low (2.4 million tons annually) nationally. Nyanza region contributes about 5 million bags. This is not enough to feed its population of 5 million people. Maize ear rot disease contributes to low maize productivity in Nyanza, with annual lossess due to aar rot estimated at 18 percent. These pathogens are reported to lower the quality of the maize crop and produce mycotox...

A Review Of 10 Years Autopsy Of Children With Cardiovascular Disorders

SUMMARY Objectives: To review the prevalence and pattern of cardiovascular disorders in childhood autopsies in Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH). To also determine the frequency of associated extra cardiac complications and characteristics of children with cardiovascular diseases that died. Materials and Methods: The autopsy register of the department of Morbid anatomy for the years 1991 to 2000 in LUTH was retrospectively reviewed. Data extracted including age, sex, primary diag...


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