Medical & Health Sciences

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Medical & Health Sciences Research Papers/Topics

Socio-Economic and Health Consequences of Drugs and Substance Use in Gachie, A Peri-Urban Town on the Outskirts of Nairobi

Abstract Drug and substance abuse is a major socioeconomic and health problem to the drug users, family and society and is reported to be on a steady global rise. In Kenya, drug abuse is a major societal problem especially in many cosmopolitan cities such as Nairobi and Mombasa and the surrounding immediate environs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the types of drugs, the socio-economic and health consequences of drug abuse among the inhabitants of Gachie Sub-Location, Kiambu Cou...

Prevalence of Depression and Related Socio Demographic Factors Among Nurses Working at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Uasin Gishu County, Eldoret

Abstract Nurses are predisposed to developing depression which is a common mental health problem. They experience depression more than the general population due to the nature of their work. Untreated, depression can lead to a poor quality of life and reduced productivity at the place of work. The purpose of the study was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with depression among nurses working at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital. The research targeted a population of 1050 nurse...

Effectiveness of the Devolved Primary Health Care Gatekeeper System in Machakos County, Kenya

Abstract The low health outcomes and inequities problems in developing countries are due to ineffective gate keeping at the Primary Health Care (PHC) level, non-adherence to policy and dysfunctional health infrastructure. This study was conducted at 100 PHC centres sampled using Taro Yamane formula, in Machakos County, Kenya, from March to May 2015. It involved 8 gender-based focus group discussions (FGDs) with patients and their caretakers. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected f...

Lay HIV counselors' knowledge and attitudes toward depression: A mixed-methods cross-sectional study at primary healthcare centers in Mozambique

Abstract Introduction: Depression is the most common mental disorder among people living with HIV/AIDS and has a negative impact on HIV treatment outcomes. Training lay HIV counselors to identify and manage depression may contribute to improved patient access and adherence to treatment, and reduce stigma and discrimination among lay health workers toward both HIV and depression. The purpose of this study was to assess the current knowledge and attitudes of lay HIV counselors toward managing ...

Hookworm Infestations among Pregnant Teenagers in Bungoma County, Kenya

Abstract Hookworm infection (Ancylostomiasis) and its association with hematopoietic micronutrient deficiency, contributes significantly to anaemia in poor countries. In these countries, teenage pregnancy is a major health problem characterized by high prevalence of anemia, exacerbating physiological distress due to increased oxygen demand. In spite of the high prevalence of this problem, no study has been undertaken in Kenya. This is resultant from the combined metabolic needs of a rapidly ...

Patient Perceptions on Primary Health Care (PHC) Nurses and Its Impact on Services Delivery at County Level, Machakos, Kenya

Abstract Background: Patient perceptions on services delivered by nurses are crucial when assessing the quality of health services. These are most attributable to their knowledge, competent skills and other personal characteristics. These can be described in how effective they handle clients when performing their nursing duties and their effectiveness including their ability to utilize a variety of communication skills and their attitudes at their regular work place. Methodology: This is a c...

Prevalence of Dental Caries among Adult Patients in Bungoma County, Kenya

Abstract Globally, dental caries has affected nearly 100% of adult teeth. Dental caries is caused when microbial biofilm converts free sugar contained in such foods and drinks into acid which corrodes the tooth structure. In Kenya, the prevalence is 34%. This high prevalence has led to the negative impact associated with the disease. Therefore, this study’s main aim was to determine the prevalence of dental caries among adult patients in Bungoma County, Kenya. This study was conducted in B...

Spatially Variable Risk Factors for Malaria in a Geographically Heterogeneous Landscape, Western Kenya: An Explorative Study

Abstract/Overview Large reductions in malaria transmission and mortality have been achieved over the last decade, and this has mainly been attributed to the scale-up of long-lasting insecticidal bed nets and indoor residual spraying with insecticides. Despite these gains considerable residual, spatially heterogeneous, transmission remains. To reduce transmission in these foci, researchers need to consider the local demographical, environmental and social context, and design an appropriate...

Innovative Tools and OpenHDS for Health and Demographic Surveillance on Rusinga Island, Kenya

Abstract/Overview Health in low and middle income countries is on one hand characterized by a high burden associated with preventable communicable diseases and on the other hand considered to be under-documented due to improper basic health and demographic record-keeping. health and demographic surveillance systems (HDSSs) have provided researchers, policy makers and governments with data about local population dynamics and health related information. In order for an HDSS to deliver high ...

In vitro anti-cancer efficacy and phyto-chemical screening of solvent extracts of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth

Abstract Background and objectives: Kigelia africana is a medicinal plant growing naturally in many parts of Africa. In Kenya, a water concoction of the plant is used to treat breast and prostate cancers. Laboratory data on its anti-cancer activity and active principles is limited, hence no scientific rationale for its medicinal use. This study reports on in-vitro toxic activities of dichloromethane and methanol extracts of the plant against human breast cancer cells and phytochemical screen...

Seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle herds raised in Maasai Mara ecosystem in Kenya

Abstract A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) seroprevalence and identify risk factors of exposure among cattle herds raised in three zones with different types of land use and progressively distant from the Maasai Mara National Reserve (MMNR) boundary. We selected five villages purposively; two in zone 1 (area < 20 km from the MMNR), another two in zone 2 (area between 20−40 km away from the MMNR) and one in zone 3 (area > 40 km away from the...

Cervical Dysplasia, Infection, and Phylogeny of Human Papillomavirus in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Women at a Reproductive Health Clinic in Nairobi, Kenya

Abstract High risk human Papillomavirus (HPV) infections ultimately cause cervical cancer. Human Immunodefi ciency Virus (HIV) infected women often present with multiple high-risk HPV infections and are thus at a higher risk of developing cervical cancer. However, information on the circulating high-risk HPV genotypes in Kenya in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women is still scanty. This study is aimed at determining the phylogeny and the HPV genotypes in women with respect to their H...

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Human Herpes Virus Type 8 (HHV-8), Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1), and Syphilis among Female Sex Workers in Malindi, Kenya

Abstract The prevalence of Human Herpes Virus type 8 (HHV-8), Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and syphilis is high in Sub- Saharan Africa. Studies on HHV-8 in Kenya are few and data on its coinfection with HIV and syphilis scanty. This crosssectional study among female sex workers (FSWs) in Malindi, Kenya, aimed to determine the prevalence of HHV-8, HIV, and syphilis mono/coinfections and identify associated risk factors. A total of 268 FSWs consented and were administered a structured q...

Hypoglycemic effect of Helichrysum odoratissimum in alloxan induced diabetic mice

Abstract Diabetes mellitus is a disease of antiquity with worrying global incidence and prevalence. Conventional management and/or treatment interventions have been hampered by drawbacks like high costs, inaccessibility, likelihood of potential adverse and toxic effects among others. Use of antidiabetic phytodrugs has been on the rise, particularly in the developing countries, perhaps due to cost implications and accessibility advantages. In this study, an aqueous leaf extract of the medicin...

Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among an Urban Population in Kenya

Abstract OBJECTIVE: Developing countries are undergoing an epidemiologic transition accompanied by increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) linked to urbanization and lifestyle modifications. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of CVD risk factors whose extent in Kenya remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and factors associated with its occurrence among an urban population in Kenya. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a household...


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