Medical & Health Sciences

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Medical & Health Sciences Research Papers/Topics

Dogs Owners’ Perception on the Use of Black Soldier Fly, Hermetia illucens L (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Larvae as an Alternative Source of Protein in Dog Food in Kenya

Abstract/Overview In recent years, pet owners have begun to show more consideration for their companion animals, which includes paying more attention to their nutrition. This is thought to be a strategy to protect the welfare and health of their animals. As feed and food, using insects has gained increased interest from industry, investigators, policymakers, and the general public globally. Owing to their rapid biomass turnover and dietary value, consideration of insects to serve as novel...

Putative Functions of Novel Antennae Chemosensory Gene Repertoire of Male Tsetse Fly, Glossina Morsitans Morsitans

Abstract Tsetse fly is a primary vector of Human African Trypanosomiasis and Animal African Trypanosomiasis. Tsetse fly exploits chemical cues from the environment to distinguish a non- from suitable hosts. Genes in tsetse fly antennae code for proteins and receptors that directly or indirectly mediate chemoreception. While chemoreception-associated genes have been annotated, antennal genes in the Glossina. m. morsitans genome with important functions have not been characterized. Antennaespe...

Effect of Adolescents and Sexual Reproductive Health Policy on Girl Child Retention in Public Secondary Schools in Butula Sub-County, Kenya

Abstract The challenge of girls' retention in educational institutions has been identified as a significant obstacle. The inability to maintain the enrollment of female students in secondary schools can be regarded as a squandering of valuable human capital and financial investments made in their primary education, as well as a loss of time invested in their initial enrollment. These young females have the potential to develop into a demographic of women lacking in literacy skills, resulting...

Self-reported Provision of Preconception Care and Associated Factors

Abstract Background: Preconception care (PCC) is the provision of health interventions to women and couples before conception occurs and is valuable in promoting healthy maternal, birth, and neonatal health outcomes. In Africa, more so in Kenya, maternal and neonatal health indicators have remained poor. The key constraint limiting progress is the gap between what is needed and what exists in terms of skills and availability of human resources & infrastructures in the face of increased deman...

Persistent Low Level Viraemia in Antiretroviral Treated Patients: Associated Factors and Virologic Outcome among HIV-1 Infected Patients at Nyakach County Hospital

Abstract/Overview Antiretroviral treatment (ART) assists patients in controlling their HIV infection and ensuring long-term survival. Despite this advantage, a significant number of HIV-positive individuals do not attain full virologic suppression. The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of low-level viraemia, its impact on outcome, and related factors in HIV-1 infected patients receiving ART at Nyakach County Hospital in Kisumu, Kenya. This observational cohort resea...

Factors Affecting Provision of Service Quality in the Public Health Sector: A Case of Kenyatta National Hospital

Abstract Purpose – This paper seeks to explore the factors affecting provision of service quality in the public health sector in Kenya, focusing on employee capability, technology, communication and financial resources. The paper reviews existing literature and experiences on public health service provision and quality management. Design/methodology/approach – The paper reports on empirical evidence drawn from a case study of Kenyatta National Hospital – the largest referral hospital i...

High Seroprevalence of Immunoglobulin G (Igg) and 2 Igm Antibodies to SARS-Cov-2 in Asymptomatic and 3 Symptomatic Individuals amidst Vaccination Roll-Out 4 in Western Kenya

Abstract/Overview The population's antibody response is a key factor in comprehending SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology. This is especially important in African settings where COVID-19 impact, and vaccination rates are relatively low. This study aimed at characterizing the Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and Immunoglobulin M (IgM) in both SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals in Kisumu and Siaya counties in Western Kenya using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. The IgG and IgM overall seropre...

March 2019 dengue fever outbreak at the Kenyan south coast involving dengue virus serotype 3, genotypes III and V

Abstract The first description of a disease resembling dengue fever (DF) was in the 15 century slave trade era by Spanish sailors visiting the Tanzania coast. The disease, then associated with evil spirits is now known to be caused by four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4) that are transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Kenya has experienced multiple outbreaks, mostly associated with DENV-2. In this study, plasma samples obtained from 37 febrile patients during a DF outbreak at Kenya’s south c...

Nutritional status of people who inject drugs in Coastal Kenya: a cross-sectional study

Abstract Introduction Despite documentation on injection drug use (IDU) in Kenya, the nutritional status of people who inject drugs (PWIDs) is under-explored. Elsewhere studies report under-nutrition among PWIDs which is attributed to food insecurity; competing priorities between drugs and food supply; chaotic lifestyle; reduced food intake; substance use induced malnutrition due to inflammation and comorbidities. Methods This was a cross-sectional study that sought to assess the nutritional...

Relationship Between Nursing Students’ Psychiatric Encounters and the Choice of Psychiatric Nursing Specialty in Kenya

Abstract Management of mentally ill patients is mainly done by psychiatric nurses in Kenya. This study sought to identify the association between nursing students’ psychiatric encounters and the perception towards psychiatric nursing in Kenya using a cross-sectional study design. Cluster and systematic random sampling were used to select the study participants. Data was analysed using SPSS version 21. Odds ratio was used to identify the association between variables. A significant associat...

Sero-epidemiological survey of Coxiella burnetii in livestock and humans in Tana River and Garissa counties in Kenya

Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii is a widely distributed pathogen, but data on its epidemiology in livestock, and human populations remain scanty, especially in developing countries such as Kenya. We used the One Health approach to estimate the seroprevalance of C. burnetii in cattle, sheep, goats and human populations in Tana River county, and in humans in Garissa county, Kenya. We also identified potential determinants of exposure among these hosts. Methods Data were collected through...

Attitudes of Primary Health Care (PHC) Gatekeepers Towards Patient Referral Policy, Machakos County, Kenya

Abstract Primary Health Care (PHC) serves as the foundation for building a working healthcare system that provide good health outcomes. The quality of PHC delivery and the decision to refer patients depends on some behavioural factors (knowledge, skills and behaviour) of primary care providers. The study was conducted at 100 PHC centres sampled using Taro Yamane formula, in Machakos County, Kenya, from March to May 2015. It involved 8 gender-based focus group discussions (FGDs) with patients...

Antiplasmodial prenylated flavanonols from Tephrosia subtriflora

Abstract The CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Tephrosia subtriflora afforded a new flavanonol, named subtriflavanonol (1), along with the known flavanone spinoflavanone B, and the known flavanonols MS-II (2) and mundulinol. The structures were elucidated by the use of NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of the flavanonols was determined based on quantum chemical ECD calculations. In the antiplasmodial assay, compound 2 showed the highest activit...

Antiplasmodial potential of traditional phytotherapy of some remedies used in treatment of malaria in Meru–Tharaka Nithi County of Kenya

Abstract Ethnopharmacological relevance Medicinal plants play a major role in many communities across the world, in the treatment and prevention of disease and the promotion of general health. The aim of the study was to escalate documentation from an earlier study of medicinal plants, traditionally used to combat malaria by the Ameru community of Imenti Forest area and Gatunga in Eastern Region of Kenya, and validate their ethnopharmacological claims by evaluating their antiplasmodial effic...

In vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activity of extracts of selected Kenyan medicinal plants

Abstract Malaria is one of the most important parasitic diseases in the world. It remains a major public health problem in Africa and is responsible for the annual death of over one million children below the age of five years. The Plasmodium falciparum is the most widespread etiological agent for human malaria and has become increasingly resistant to standard antimalarial drugs. Therefore, this necessitates a continuous effort to search for new drugs, particularly with novel modes of action...


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