Medical & Health Sciences

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Medical & Health Sciences Research Papers/Topics

Phytochemical, Cytotoxicity, and Antimycobacterial Activity Evaluation of Extracts and Compounds from the Stem Bark of Albizia coriaria Welw ex. Oliver

Abstract ackground. Albizia coriaria Welw ex. Oliver (Fabaceae) is one of the plants used by herbalists in the East Africa community to prepare herbal remedies for the management of symptoms of TB. Despite its widespread use, the antimycobacterial activity of this plant was uninvestigated and there was contradicting information regarding its cytotoxicity. Methods. Cytotoxicity (MTT), antimycobacterial activity (MABA), and phytochemical screening were conducted on crude extracts (hexane, chlo...

Sub-Acute Toxicity Effects of Methanolic Stem Bark Extract of Entada abyssinica on Biochemical, Haematological and Histopathological Parameters in Wistar Albino Rats

Abstract Background: Whereas the efficacy of Entada abyssinica (fabaceae) extracts against various ailments has been scientifically validated, its safety has not been established. This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity effects of methanolic stem bark extract of E. abyssinica on biochemical, haematological and histological parameters of Wistar albino rats following repeated oral administration. Methods: Wistar albino rats of both sexes were randomized into groups and orally admini...

Traditional Medicinal Uses, Phytoconstituents, Bioactivities, and Toxicities of Erythrina abyssinica Lam. ex DC. (Fabaceae): A Systematic Review

Abstract Background. Many studies have been undertaken on the medicinal values of Erythrina abyssinica Lam. ex DC. (Fabaceae). The details, however, are highly fragmented in different journals, libraries, and other publication media. This study was therefore conducted to provide a comprehensive report on its ethnobotany, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemicals, and the available pharmacological evidence supporting its efficacy and safety in traditional medicine. Method. We collected data using a...

Interpersonal Communication Barriers to Uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya

Abstract ervical cancer is still a major health risk for women even though it is preventable. Its prevalence indicates lack of success with screening and early diagnosis. Considering most women who visit hospitals have advanced stages of the disease, deaths from this type of cancer will rise if immediate action is not taken. This study sought to determine the obstacles to interpersonal communication as a means for encouraging adoption of cervical cancer testing in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. ...

Association of Malnutrition with Subsequent Malaria Parasitemia among Children Younger than Three years in Kenya: A Secondary Data Analysis of the Asembo Bay Cohort Study

Abstract Malaria and malnutrition remain primary causes of morbidity and mortality among children younger than 5 years in Africa. Studies investigating the association between malnutrition and subsequent malaria outcomes are inconsistent. We studied the effects of malnutrition on incidence and prevalence of malaria parasitemia in data from a cohort studied in the 1990s. Data came from the Asembo Bay cohort study, which collected malaria and health information on children from 1992 to 1996 in...

The Burden of Motorcycle Crash Injuries on the Public Health System in Kisumu City, Kenya

Abstract Background: In Kenya, the increased use of motorcycles for transport has led to increased morbidity, mortality, and disability. These injuries exert a burden on the public health system, yet little information exists on health care resource usage by motorcycle crash injury patients. We aimed to estimate the burden of motorcycle crash injuries on the health system in Kisumu City. Methods: We conducted a 6-month prospective study of all motorcycle crash injury patients who presented t...

Application of Principal Component Analysis to Assess Health Systems Capacity Using Cross Sectional Data in Rural Western Kenya

Abstract Introduction: Strong health systems are essential platforms for accessible, quality health services, and population health and attainment of the Sustainable Development Goal (SDGs). Descriptive methods have been used to assess the health systems strength and impact, however, there is inadequate knowledge on methods of analyzing huge number of indices to provide systematic evidence that service readiness is improving or deteriorating over time. Methods: We utilized data from a cross ...

Anaemia Phenotypes in Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment Defaulting Adults at the Comprehensive Care Clinic at the Siaya County Teaching and Referral Hospital

Abstract Background: Anaemia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. While adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) reduces the incidence of anaemia, non-adherence (defaulting) to ART is associated with a number of haematologic derangements including anaemia. However, the mechanisms and predictors of anaemia have not been examined among ART defaulters in western Kenya. This study, therefore, aimed at evaluating the...

Hepatic and Renal Functions in HIV-Positive Children with Malaria in Western Kenya

Abstract Background: The burden of HIV and malaria co-infection lies disproportionately in the Sub-Saharan Africa region which bears most of the malaria endemic zones. While both malaria and HIV are known to dysregulate hepatic and renal functions, the combined effect of co-infection with malaria and HIV on hepatic and renal function among children remains poorly characterized. Objective: To assess liver and renal functions in HIV-malaria co-infected children in Western Kenya. Methods: A cro...

Community attitude and practice towards skin disease prevention in a rural community in Busia County

Abstract Background: Skin conditions were the fourth leading cause of nonfatal burden globally, expressed as years lost due to disability and eighteenth leading cause of health burden worldwide, expressed as disability adjusted life years. From Busia County health sector strategic and investment plan 2018-2023 report, skin diseases was third leading cause of morbidity in the county with 6.5%. Skin diseases, though very common in many developing countries, are not often regarded as a signific...

Determination of hematological response to iron and folic acid supplementation among the expectant mothers attending Kakamega County Referral Hospital, Kenya

Abstract Background Despite iron and folic acid supplementation program among expectant mothers while attending antenatal care clinic at Kakamega County, the rates of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality due to anemia complications are still high. Aim First, we determined changes in hematological profiles following iron and folic acid supplementation. Second, we determined association between hematological changes with demographic and clinical characteristics in response to iron and fo...

Socio-Economic and Health Consequences of Drugs and Substance Use in Gachie, A Peri-Urban Town on the Outskirts of Nairobi

Abstract Drug and substance abuse is a major socioeconomic and health problem to the drug users, family and society and is reported to be on a steady global rise. In Kenya, drug abuse is a major societal problem especially in many cosmopolitan cities such as Nairobi and Mombasa and the surrounding immediate environs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the types of drugs, the socio-economic and health consequences of drug abuse among the inhabitants of Gachie Sub-Location, Kiambu Cou...

Prevalence of Depression and Related Socio Demographic Factors Among Nurses Working at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Uasin Gishu County, Eldoret

Abstract Nurses are predisposed to developing depression which is a common mental health problem. They experience depression more than the general population due to the nature of their work. Untreated, depression can lead to a poor quality of life and reduced productivity at the place of work. The purpose of the study was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with depression among nurses working at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital. The research targeted a population of 1050 nurse...

Effectiveness of the Devolved Primary Health Care Gatekeeper System in Machakos County, Kenya

Abstract The low health outcomes and inequities problems in developing countries are due to ineffective gate keeping at the Primary Health Care (PHC) level, non-adherence to policy and dysfunctional health infrastructure. This study was conducted at 100 PHC centres sampled using Taro Yamane formula, in Machakos County, Kenya, from March to May 2015. It involved 8 gender-based focus group discussions (FGDs) with patients and their caretakers. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected f...

Lay HIV counselors' knowledge and attitudes toward depression: A mixed-methods cross-sectional study at primary healthcare centers in Mozambique

Abstract Introduction: Depression is the most common mental disorder among people living with HIV/AIDS and has a negative impact on HIV treatment outcomes. Training lay HIV counselors to identify and manage depression may contribute to improved patient access and adherence to treatment, and reduce stigma and discrimination among lay health workers toward both HIV and depression. The purpose of this study was to assess the current knowledge and attitudes of lay HIV counselors toward managing ...


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