Medical & Health Sciences

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Medical & Health Sciences Research Papers/Topics

HIV-1 protease inhibitor drug resistance in Kenyan antiretroviral treatment-naive and -experienced injection drug users and non-drug users

Abstract Background Although injection drug use drives antiretroviral drug resistance, the prevalence of protease inhibitor (PI) resistance among Kenyan IDUs remains undetermined. We, therefore, explored PI resistance mutations and their association with viral load and CD4+ T cell counts in HIV-1 infected IDUs (ART-naive, n = 32; and -experienced, n = 47) and non-drug users (ART-naive, n = 21; and -experienced, n = 32) naive for PI treatment from coastal Kenya. Results Only IDUs harboured ma...

Scope of SARS-CoV-2 variants, mutations, and vaccine technologies

Abstract Background The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 is disseminated by respiratory aerosols. The virus uses the spike protein to target epithelial cells by binding to the ACE2 receptor on the host cells. As a result, effective vaccines must target the viral spike glycoprotein. However, the appearance of an Omicron variant with 32 mutations in its spike protein raises questions about the vaccine’s efficacy. Vacc...

Evaluation of Government Programs in Mitigating Drug and Substance Abuse in Kilifi and Mombasa Counties, Kenya

Abstract The issue of drug and substance abuse has become a major concern in Kenya, particularly in the coastal region. In response, the government has implemented various programs to mitigate the problem. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the government's programs for mitigating drug and substance abuse in the Kilifi and Mombasa Counties of thecoastal region of Kenya.Social learning theory and functionalism theory served as the study's guiding principles. The study was further und...

Cytokine profiles in highly active antiretroviral treatment non-adherent, adherent and naive HIV-1 infected patients in Western Kenya

Abstract Background: Cytokines play an important role in signaling the immune system to build an adequate immune response against HIV. HIV distorts the balance between pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines causing viral replication. Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) acts by trying to restore pro and anti-inflammatory cytokine balance. It is not clear how HAART non-adherence influences circulating cytokine levels. This study therefore determined cytokine levels in HAART non-adheren...

Mental health outcomes and associated predictors among mothers of preterm infants: A cross-sectional study

Abstract Objectives: The study sought to determine mental health outcomes and associated predictors among mothers of preterm infants in the Neonatal Care Unit (NCU). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study design was used to answer the research question. One hundred and eighty-two (182) mothers with preterm babies admitted to the Neonatal Care unit were interviewed. Data was collected from June to August 2021 using semi-structured pretested questionnaires and mental health ...

Influence of Organizational Culture on Public Health Service Delivery in County Governments in Western Kenya Region

Abstract Poor health service delivery has been linked to the devolution of health services, with some health workers walking off the job due to inadequate pay and unsafe working conditions. This research aimed at establishing the influence of organizational culture on public health service delivery in County Governments in Western Kenya Region, Taking a positivist approach, the study was anchored on Organizational Culture Theory. Descriptive survey and causal-comparative research designs wer...

Hygiene Practices and Early Childhood Development in the East Asia-Pacific Region: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

Abstract Poor hygiene might be a risk factor for early childhood development (ECD). This study investigated the associations of three hygiene practices (‘wash hands before a meal,’ ‘wash hands after going to the toilet,’ and ‘brush teeth’), separately and combined, with ECD. Six thousand six hundred ninety-seven children (4 [0.8] years) from the East Asia-Pacific Early Child Development Scales validation study were included in this cross-sectional analysis. The hygiene variables ...

Prognostic Potential of RDW in Discriminating Hemoglobinopathies among Patients reporting to Aga Khan Hospital, Kisumu

Abstract Background Red cell distribution width (RDW) measures the extent of variation in red blood cell (RBC) volume in terms of coefficient of variation. It reflects the degree of variation in RBC’s sizes and shapes, characteristic of iron deficiency and anemias involving RBC destruction, especially hemoglobinopathies. Its values are often available as one of the RBC indices generated as complete blood cell count (CBC) using automated hematology analyzers. Hemoglobinopathies are highly p...

Ethnomedicinal uses of stingless bee honey among native communities of Baringo County, Kenya

Abstract Stingless bees live in tropical and subtropical areas around the world, however, stingless bee honey and other products have traditionally been used in the tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world to treat various diseases since ancient times. Little has been done to document these traditional medicinal uses, particularly in Africa. Therefore, an ethnomedical survey was conducted in Baringo County, Kenya to document knowledge on medicinal uses ofstingless bee honey. The study wa...

First report of Phasey bean mild yellows virus in Kenya with a new host record

Abstract Genome studies in Australia reported a novel virus, Phasey bean mild yellows virus (genus Polerovirus; PBMYV), in mixed infections with Bean leaf roll virus, Faba bean polerovirus 1, Soybean dwarf virus and Turnip yellows virus naturally infecting phasey bean (Macroptilium lathyroides) (Sharman et al., 2021). Transmission studies with Aphis craccivora and by grafting with infected scions identified fabaceous hosts including chickpea, faba bean and pea as additional hosts of PBMYV (W...

Nonsynonymous amino acid changes in the α-chain of complement component 5 influence longitudinal susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum infections and severe malarial anemia in kenyan childr

Abstract Background: Severe malarial anemia (SMA; Hb < 5.0 g/dl) is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in holoendemic Plasmodium falciparum transmission regions such as western Kenya. Methods: We investigated the relationship between two novel complement component 5 (C5) missense mutations [rs17216529:C>T, p(Val145Ile) and rs17610:C>T, p(Ser1310Asn)] and longitudinal outcomes of malaria in a cohort of Kenyan children (under 60 mos, n = 1,546). Molecular modeling was used to...

Tool for determining levels and classifying; host plant resistance, tolerance to stress, vigour and pathogen virulence in plants

Abstract The global food security and plant resources levels are continuously under threat from climate change, environmental pollution, population pressure, co-evolving plant pests and pathogens. Currently, scientists across the world are in pursuit of plant genotypes that can be resilient in growth and development amidst these stresses to enable survival of humans in the changing times. Therefore, to effectively select plants that have known and favorable resistance or tolerance levels aga...

Resistance of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato to Pirimiphos-methyl Insecticide in Kakamega County, Highlands of Western Kenya

Abstract Background: Insecticide treated bed nets and Indoor residual spraying remains the principal interventional malaria control strategies. To achieve malaria disease eradication, vector control programmes that monitor insecticide resistance profiles are necessary. Objective: The study evaluated pirimiphos-methyl susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato in Kakamega County, western Kenya. Methods: Adult Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes were assayed using World Health Organiza...

Bed net use and malaria treatment-seeking behavior in artisanal gold mining and sugarcane growing areas of Western Kenya highlands

Abstract Provision of the bed net in Sub-Saharan Africa has substantially resulted in the decrease in malaria incidences in the region. However, malaria still ravages these regions causing significant deaths. This situation has been attributed to socio-economic inequalities that reduce access to the net, failure to seek treatment, and poor antimalarial drug use. Information about these factors in malaria control in Western Kenya highlands is not clearly documented. This study sought to find ...


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